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Full text of "The Thoreau Society Bulletin"

Thoream 
Bulletin 



ociety 




ISSN 0040-6406 



Number 236 



Summer 200 1 



Friends of Walden Pond: 

Remarks at the Celebration of The Friends of Walden Pond Agreement 



Ronald A. Bosco 



[Editor's Note: The following 
remarks were presented at 
Walden Pond State 
Reservation on the occassion 
of the announcement of The 
Friends of Walden Pond, a 
new activity of The Thoreau 
Society to support the 
Walden Pond State 
Reservation. Also speaking at 
the tree planting ceremony 
were Department of 
Environmental Management 
Commissioner Peter Webber, 
Walden Pond Supervisor 
Denise Morrissey, and 
Division of Forests and Parks 
Director Todd Frederick] 




Thoreau Society and DEM representatives plant a tree at \\ 
to mark the beginning of The Friends of Walden Pond. 



Department of Environmental 
Management Commissioner 
Webber, Division of Forests and 
Parks Director Frederick, Program Manager 
Lafleur, Walden Pond State Reservation 
Supervisor Morrissey, honored guests: 

On behalf of the officers, Board of 
Directors, and members of the Thoreau 
Society, I am delighted to be here today to cel- 
ebrate the Agreement between the 
Department of Environmental Management 
and the Thoreau Society that formally estab- 
lishes the Society as The Friends of Walden 
Pond. The Thoreau Society was formed exact- 
ly sixty years ago, and since then it has grown 
to be the largest, and now oldest, society in 
the world devoted to the legacy of an 
American writer. Over the years, individuals 
from all walks — literary academics; environ- 
mentalists and land preservationists; social 
and political reformers; practitioners of the 
unique brand of American individualism and 
self-reliance that emerged in the nineteenth 



century; professionals in art history, natural 
history and science, geography and urban 
planning; and, of course, lovers of nature — 
have joined the Society with this shared mis- 
sion: to honor Henry David Thoreau by stim- 
ulating interest in and fostering education 

■ about his life, works, and philosophy and his 
place in his world and ours; by encouraging 
research on his life and writings; and by 
advocating for the preservation of "Thoreau 
country." Our members and the varied 
interests and talents that they bring to the 

_ Society reflect the extraordinary breadth of 
the intellectual and imaginative hold that 
Thoreau exerts on American culture — indeed, 
on global culture — to this very day. 

As we stand together at the site immor- 
talized by Thoreau in Walden, that master- 
piece of literary art which expresses so fully 
the ideal of American self-culture, it is worth 
reflecting on the fact that extensive coopera- 
tion between governmental agencies and 
professional societies such as we represent is 



quite rare. Yet, as President of the Thoreau 
Society and as a Concordian, I am confident 
that I speak for all our members as well as for 
our neighbors when I say that we enthusias- 
tically look forward to our role as The 
Friends of Walden Pond and the way in 
which, while serving as The Friends, we will 
be furthering the mission of the Department 
of Environmental Management: to exercise 
care and oversight for the natural, cultural, 

continued on page 2 



In 


This Issue 


2 


Editor's Note Susie Carlisle 


3 


President's Column Ronald A. Bosco 


6 


Thoreau in the Military 




Classroom Matthew Ignoffo 


7 


Curator's Column Jeffrey S. Cramer 


8 


- 
Annual Gathering 


9 


Thoreau Society Visits Japan 


10 


Remarks at Soko University 




Ronald A. Bosco 


12 


Acceptance Speech of T.S. 




Honorary Life Membership at 




Soko University Alumni Gathering 




Daisaku Ikeda 


14 


Review: William Cain's Historical 




Guide to Thoreau Randall Conrad 


15 


Thoreau Society Committees 


16 


Notes and Queries 


18 


Thoreau Bibliography 


20 


Calendar 



Editor's Note 



Susie Carlisle 



A ^1 begin my second year as 
-/~\.Oeditor of the Bulletin, I must offer sin- 
cere and heartfelt thanks to all those who 
have sent encouraging words and, more 
importantly, contributions during the past 
twelve months. Your assistance has been 
invaluable, particularly the additions for the 
Thoreau bibliography and the items includ- 
ed in "Notes and Queries." True to 
Thoreau's example of careful and close 
observation, your dedication to promoting 
interest imand continued appreciation for 
Thoreau has allowed the Bulletin to grow to 
the respectable quarterly publication it is 
today. 

I ask for your continued assistance in 
providing both smaller items of interest as 
well as longer pieces to be presented as 
feature articles. The teachers' column — 
"Thoreau in the Classroom" — has met with 
tremendous success; I encourage all educa- 
tors to submit their material featuring 
approaches to teaching Thoreau at all levels. 
And our entire readership is always interest- 
ed in discovering new connections to 
Thoreau both within and beyond Concord- 
proper; I continue to call for submission any 
and all full-length and feature articles. With 
this in mind, the following are the deadlines 
for submission of material for each issue: 



My primary goal for the next year is to 
ensure that each issue of the Bulletin is 
mailed on time; with your help in meeting 
submission deadlines, I am sure that we can 
be successful. In addition, both the Bulletin 
and The Concord Saunterer will be adopting 
MLA (Modern Language Association) for- 
mat for all articles, notes, and bibliographic 
entries. Questions regarding the format- 
should be sent to Susie Carlisle, Editor; 
Thoreau Society Bulletin; Baker Farm; 
Lincoln, Massachusetts 01773-3004 or via 
e-mail: scarlisl@ziplink.net. 

Finally, let me congratulate all mem- 
bers — and non-members — of the Thoreau 
Society on making the 60th Annual 
Gathering a tremendous success. A total of 
230 attended the festivities ( 148 members, 82 
non-members), which is sixty-five stronger 
than last year's gathering. Twenty-two states 
and three countries were represented, 
demonstrating that Thoreau and his works 
are far-reaching indeed. With the 150 th 
anniversary of the publication of Walden on 
the horizon, let us continue to spread the 
good works of Henry David Thoreau. 



Fall 


September 1 


Winter 


December 1 


Spring 


March 1 


Summer 


July 1 



New Life Members 

Charles Phillips 
Karen Merrill 



a - 



Life Membership 

The Society is once again offering life memberships. 

Life Membership includes all the benefits 

of an individual membership with the 

added advantage that your contribution will be 

managed for the long-term benefit 

of the Society. 

Cost: 

$ 1 ,000 per person 

Your Life Membership contribution is tax-deductible. 

Please contact the office for further information. 



1 

I 
1 

E 

I 



(781)259-4750 



continued from page 1 

and historic resources of the Commonwealth 
of Massachusetts and to provide quality 
public recreational opportunities that are 
environmentally sound, affordable, and 
accessible to all citizens. As The Friends of 
Walden Pond, operating under the Thoreau 
Society's Friends of Walden Pond Committee, 
we will aid and promote management pro- 
grams and activities jointly developed by 
DEM and the Society for the Walden Pond 
State Reservation. These programs will 
include public education, environmental con- 
servation, and physical improvements to the 
Reservation for which no government funds 
are available. We will also actively support 
DEM's mission to balance resource protection 
and enhancement with public use and enjoy- 
ment at Walden Pond. 

Thoreau wrote in Walden, "A lake is the 
landscape's most beautiful and expressive 
feature. It is earth's eye, looking into which 
the beholder measures the depth of his own 
nature." The depth of one's own nature is 
invariably also a measure of an individ- 
ual's — or in this case, a society's — commit- 
ment to its ideals. I cannot imagine a more 
appropriate way for the Thoreau Society to 
extend and share our founders' vision of how 
best to preserve the legacy of Henry David / 
Thoreau than for us to actively promote his 
legacy at the very site to which thousands of 
people from across the world have made 
their pilgrimage over the past century— 
a site which to all Thoreauvians is a sacred 
trust for us to preserve. And, because the 
explicit educational, research, and 
advocacy components of the Society's 
mission dovetail so perfectly with those of 
DEM's overall mission, I truly believe that, 
through our position as The Friends of 
Walden Pond, the Thoreau Society, in concert 
with the Department of Environmental 
Management, will be furthering our respec- 
tive missions while also performing an 
invaluable service to our neighbors and 
friends in Concord and Lincoln, to all the 
citizens of the Commonwealth of 
Massachusetts, and, indeed, to the many 
citizens of the world who will, I trust, continue 
to make their pilgrimage to this uniquely 
beautiful, inspiring, and historic site. 

In closing, I would like to acknowledge 
Todd Lafleur, Stuart Weinreb, and Kathy 
Abbott, whose generosity toward the 
Thoreau Society and confidence in its 
mission have made this occasion possible. 



President's Column 



Ronald A. Bosco 



[Editor's Note: The following address was pre- 
sented by Thoreau Society President Ronald A. 
Bosco on July 14, 2001, during the Business 
Meeting at the Annual Gathering.] 

I am honored and, I must confess, 
humbled to stand before you this 
morning as the president of the Thoreau 
Society as we continue our celebration of the 
sixtieth anniversary of the founding of the 
Society. Since its founding and its initial 
"gathering" of twelve or so Thoreauvians in 
1941, the Thoreau Society has grown to be 
the largest, and now oldest, society in the 
world devoted to the legacy of an American 
writer. Over the years, individuals from all 
walks — literary academics; environmentalists 
and land preservationists; social and political 
reformers; practitioners of the unique brand 
of individualism and self-reliance that 
emerged in nineteenth-century America; 
professionals in art history, natural history 
and science, geography and urban planning; 
and, of course, lovers of nature — have joined 
the Society with this shared mission: to 
honor Henry David Thoreau 

by stimulating interest in and 
fostering education about his life, 
works, and philosophy and his place in 
his world and ours; by encouraging 
research on his life and writings; by 
acting as a repository for Thoreauviana 
and material relevant to Thoreau; 
and by advocating for the preservation 
of"Tho rea u co u ntry." 

Ou/ members and the varied interests 
and talents that they bring to the Society 
reflect the extraordinary breadth of the intel- 
lectual and imaginative hold that Thoreau 
exerts on American culture — indeed, on 
global culture — to this very day. 

In my inaugural address before this 
assembly last year, I spoke of my belief 
that we are at a significant transitional 
moment in the Society's history, and while I 
admitted that transitions are by definition 
disruptive, I stated then, and do so again 
now, that my study of the seasonal structure 
of Thoreau's Journal convinces me that tran- 
sitions in theory and transitions in practice 
are also generative. I promised you then that 
I would devote my entire attention in 2000 
and 2001 to carrying through on three goals 
I had set forth in my statement of vision for 
the Society's future. Those goals were to 
continue to extend governance opportunities 
to the membership-at-large through struc- 
tures such as the Committee on 
Nominations and Elections; to implement 



the advocacy component of the Society's- 
mission, particularly advocacy on behaTf of 
Thoreau's ideals of social and political 
justice and on behalf of the preservation of 
"Thoreau country"; and to complete my 
term in 2002 with the means in place to 
insure the long-term financial self- 
sufficiency of the Society, and, as one sign of 
that self-sufficiency, to make every 
reasonable effort restore the Society's 
presence in the town of Concord proper. 

With the dedicated effort of the 
officers, the Board of Directors, and our 
membership-at-large, the Thoreau Society 
has made significant progress in each of 
these areas during the past year. I say 
"the Thoreau Society has made significant 
progress," because I truly believe our 
mission and all successes we achieve under it 
are larger than the work of one individual 
such as the president or of one group of indi- 
viduals such as the Board. And I must say 
further, the successes achieved by the 
Thoreau Society this past year are nothing 
short of remarkable: 

First and foremost, Thoreau Society 
Membership and the Thoreau Society 
Collections. 

Our membership has grown significantly 
as during this past year 331 new members 
have joined us and 975 persons have 
renewed their memberships in the Society. 
Taking into account our institutional and life 
members — and may I remind all that life 
memberships in the Society are once again 
available — today the membership of the 
Society stands at a record 1,684 persons and 
institutions. This is certainly a milestone 
achievement, and it speaks to the sense 
shared by us all that today the Thoreau 
Society is, as the saying goes, "on the move." 
The Society is confident and secure in its 
understanding of its mission and is operating 
in a way faithful to its mission, and — perhaps 
most important of all — the Society is uncon- 
ditionally open to all persons of good will who 
share our devotion to Thoreau's life, work, 
and philosophy and our commitment to 
preserving and promoting his legacy. 

Also on the subject of growth, I am 
pleased to report today that the Thoreau 
Society Collections, which as we all know 
includes not only the Society Archives and 
the Archives of The Writings of Henry D. 
Thoreau but also the Harding, Adams, 
and Robbins collections that make us the 
holders of the most comprehensive and 
impressive collection of Thoreauviana in the 
world, have been significantly enhanced by 



the generosity of our longtime friend and 
colleague, Brad Dean. The Bradley P. Dean 
Collection, which includes an extraordinary 
body of materials relating to the intellectual 
and cultural world in which Thoreau lived, 
Thoreau manuscript facsimiles (in micro- 
film, photocopies, and transcripts), a 
substantial record of Thoreau's sources, and 
electronic files relating to Thoreau's life and 
writings, is an excellent complement and sup- 
plement to the collections we already hold. 
On behalf of the Society, I thank Brad for his 
generosity in donating to the Thoreau Society 
Collections this superb resource for the 
present and future generations of readers, 
teachers, researchers, and editors of Thoreau. 

Second, the Thoreau Society Endowment. 

For the first time in its history, the 
Thoreau Society has an endowment, which is 
an essential first step in the direction of the 
long-term financial self-sufficiency of the 
Society. In the past year we received two 
substantial bequests from the estates of 
Society members Margaret Emmon Ingalls 
Bodfish and Harriet M. Sweelland; we also 
received a substantial outright gift from 
James J. Smith, who passed away shortly 
after sending us his gift. In sum, the two 
bequests and one gift amount to approxi- 
mately $400,000. 

What is especially remarkable to me 
in the events of the past year that have 
created our endowment is how each of the 
donors quietly shared with us a personal 
commitment to Henry David Thoreau and 
his legacy, and how these three persons felt 
so strongly about their respective commit- 
ments that they remembered the mission of 
the Thoreau Society as the most effective 
means through which they could each 
preserve and promote their personal 
commitment to that legacy. While I very 
much regret that I never had the privilege of 
meeting these persons, I am warmed not 
only by their generosity toward the Society, 
but also, and perhaps more particularly, by 
the quiet and dignified way in which each has 
chosen to memorialize their commitment to 
Thoreau by supporting the Society's mission 
during this and in future generations. 

At my request, the Board of Directors has 
permanently restricted the principal associated 
with the Bodfish Bequest, the Sweetland 
Bequest, and the Smith Fund. However, in 
what I trust all Society members will regard 
as a fitting tribute to each of these donors, 
the Board has directed that, in furtherance of 
our educational and research mission, 

continued on page 4 



President's Column, from page 3 
beginning in 2002 the interest accrued on 
the principal will be used only to support a 
number of competitively awarded short- 
term Thoreau Society Fellowships; these may 
be applied for by any member of the Society 
who proposes to conduct educational and/or 
research activities in the Thoreau Society 
Collections. 

Third, The Friends of Walden Pond, An 
Activity of the Thoreau Society. 

Late last year, Executive Director Tom 
Harris and I, with the support of the Board 
of Directors and the counsel of Robert 
Galvin, John Mack, -and Joseph Wheeler, 
initiated negotiations with the Massachusetts 
Department of Environmental Management 
( DEM) with the intent of the Thoreau 
Society becoming the state's official "friends" 
organization for Walden Pond State 
Reservation. As I indicated in a letter to the 
membership this Spring, our service as The 
Friends of Walden Pond began on February 
1, 2001 (under terms of an Agreement signed 
on February 28), and our work in that capac- 
ity would be overseen by a standing commit- 
tee of the Thoreau Society which I would 
personally chair. On April 20, Peter Webber, 
DEM Commissioner, Todd Frederick, 
Division of Forests and Parks Director, 
Denise Morrissey, Walden Pond State 
Reservation Supervisor, and I were joined by 
several members of the Board and several 
long-time members of the Society in a cere- 
mony at Walden Pond during which we 
planted a tree in commemoration our 
Friends of Walden Pond Agreement. 

As The Friends of Walden Pond, the 
Thoreau Society will work closely with the 
Department of Environmental Management 
to further DEM's mission: to exercise care and 
oversight for the natural, cultural, and historic 
resources of the Commonwealth of 
Massachusetts and to provide quality public 
recreational opportunities that are environ- 
mentally sound, affordable, and accessible to 
all citizens. As The Friends, operating under 
the Thoreau Society's Friends of Walden Pond 
( Committee, we will aid and promote manage- 
ment programs and activities jointly developed 
by DEM and the Society for the Walden Pond 
State Reservation. These programs will include 
public education, environmental conservation, 
and physical improvements to the Reservation 
for which no government funds are available. 
We will also actively support DEM's mission 
to balance resource protection and enhance- 
ment with public use and enjoyment at 
Walden Pond. 

I cannot imagine a more appropriate way 
for the I horeau Society to extend and share 
our founders' vision from sixty years ago of 
how best to preserve Thoreau's legacy than 



for us to actively promote that legacy at the 
very site to which thousands upon thousands 
of people from across the world have made 
their pilgrimage over the past century — a site 
which to all Thoreauvians is a sacred trust 
for us to preserve. And, because the explicit 
educational, research, and advocacy compo- 
nents of the^ociety's mission dovetail so 
perfectly with those of DEM's overall mis- 



"Our members and the 

varied interests and talents 

that they bring to the 

Society reflect the 

extraordinary breadth of 

the intellectual and 

imaginative hold that 

Thoreau exerts on 

American culture — 

indeed, on global 

culture — to this very day." 



sion, I truly believe that, through our posi- 
tion as The Friends of Walden Pond, the 
Thoreau Society, in concert DEM, will be 
furthering our respective missions while also 
performing an invaluable service to our 
neighbors and friends in Concord and 
Lincoln, to all the citizens of the 
Commonwealth of Massachusetts, and, 
indeed, to the many citizens of the world who 
will, I trust, continue to make their pilgrimage 
to this uniquely beautiful, inspiring, and 
historic site. 

Fourth, the "Globalization" of the Thoreau 
Society. 

As indicated by the fact that we draw our 
members from twenty-three countries 
around the world, the Thoreau Society has 
enjoyed a status as a "global" Society for 
many years — certainly for many years before 
terms such as "global" and "globalization" 
entered the popular vocabulary. Jn May of 
this year, we took a major step in formalizing 
our global status. 

At the invitation of Soka Gakkai 
Internationa] ( S( il ), a Tokyo-based JBuddhist 
lay organization, and SGI President Daisaku 
Ikeda, Executive Director Tom Harris, 
Society Secretary Joel Myerson, and I spent 
May 3 through May 8 in Japan discussing 
Thoreau and Transcendentalism with SGI 
members and Dr. Ikeda, who is also the 



honorary president- of SGI's parent organiza- 
tion, Soka Gakkai (meaning "society for the 
creation of value"). During our stay, we 
visited the headquarters of Soka Gakkai, and 
we also visited the Institute of Oriental 
Philosophy, the Soka University of Japan, 
and the Soka Schools of Japan, all of which 
were founded by Dr. Ikeda. Through private 
meetings, public presentations, and newspa- 
per and television coverage, our visit placed 
Thoreau and his intellectual, literary, social, 
and political legacy before nearly thirteen 
million SGI members throughout the world. 

Yes, nearly thirteen million members. On 
the afternoon of the 5 th , for instance, I had 
the privilege of speaking before seven thou- 
sand people in the Soka University main 
auditorium (an additional four thousand 
people saw and heard my address via closed 
circuit TV in the campus's adjoining central 
gymnasium). In my address, which was 
translated into Japanese as I spoke and 
appeared on May 6 in Japanese in the Seikyo 
Shimbun, a Tokyo daily with a circulation of 
5.5 million, I spoke about Thoreau and the 
legacy of his social thought in the twentieth 
century as well as about the mission of the 
Thoreau Society. At the conclusion of my 
address, I presented Dr. Ikeda with an 
Honorary Life Membership in the Thoreau 
Society. 

In his address, which followed mine, Dr. 
Ikeda referred to the lasting influence of 
Thoreau's ideals and to the relevance of his 
concept of individualism in the modern age. 
He also drew several parallels between 
Thoreau's character and that of Soka Gakkai 
founder Tsunesaburo Makiguchi ( 1871 - 
1944). Makiguchi, who founded the organi- 
zation in 1930 as an educators' society, was 
imprisoned and died there for his opposition 
to World War II. Remaining true to 
Makiguichi's vision, Dr. Ikeda, who is an 
accomplished educator, author, and poet, 
has advocated for world peace through edu- 
cation and international cultural exchange 
throughout his career. In Choose Life (1974), 
an influential book in which he collaborated 
with Sir Arnold J. Toynbee, Dr. Ikeda pro- 
posed that the diverse problems confronting 
the world's populations should always be 
overcome through peaceful solutions — a 
position he maintains to this day as evi- 
denced by his recently published Creating 
and Sustaining a Century of Life (2001 ). For 
his lifelong support of world peace, Dr. Ikeda 
has been awarded honorary doctorates and 
professorships by more than one hundred 
colleges and universities around the world. 
Among numerous other honors, he has 
received the United Nations Peace Medal, 
the Simon Wiesenthal International 
Tolerance Award, the Rosa Parks 
1 lumanitarian Award, and the Tagore Peace 



Award. It was therefore a singular honor for 
me, on behalf of the Thoreau Society, to 
name Dr. Ikeda an Honorary Life Member. 
I have every confidence that this visit to 
Japan has inaugurated an important friend- 
ship and intellectual exchange between the 
Thoreau Society and the Soka Gakkai and 
Soka University communities. In a passage of 
the Preamble to its International Charter, 
Soka Gakkai partially defines its mission thus: 

We believe that Nichiren 
Daishonin's Buddhism, a humanistic 
philosophy of infinite respect for the 
sanctity of life and all-encompassing 
compassion, enables individuals to cul- 
tivate and bring forth their inherent 
wisdom and, nurturing the creativity of 
the human spirit, to surmount the dif- 
ficulties and crises facing humankind 
and realize a society of peaceful and 
prosperous coexistence. 

What I find so powerful — and, I might 
add, so powerfully Thoreauvian — about this 
passage is that it proposes that all societal 
change begins with the cultivation of the 
"inherent wisdom" of the individual and the- 
nurturing of "the creativity of the human 
spirit." As we celebrate our sixtieth anniver- 
sary, I welcome our association with Soka 
Gakkai and Dr. Ikeda as a highly appropriate 
way for us to extend our founders' vision of 
how best to preserve and promote Thoreau's 
legacy; indeed, as I look forward to our next 
sixty years, I believe we have an obligation to 
continue to meet with all such persons and 
institutions of good will with whom we share 
a commitment to ideals such as these. 

Truly, then, during the past year the 
Thoreau Society has enjoyed significant 
successes. Our membership has grown 
dramatically, and our Collections have been 
significantly enhanced. With our endow- 
ment, we are now enjoying a degree of finan- 
cial self-sufficiency we have never before 
experienced, and we are using those funds in 
the best way possible: to promote our mission 
through fellowships for our members. In our 
capacity as The Friends ofWalden Pond we 
have formalized our relationship with DEM 
and the local and state communities, and, I 
might add, the Thoreau Society has taken on 
the most estimable address in all the 
Thoreauvian world: Walden Pond, Concord, 
Massachusetts. And, finally, by developing 
friendships and opening intellectual 
conversations with organizations such as 
Soka Gakkai, we are introducing Thoreau's 
legacy and fulfilling our mission to preserve 
and promote that legacy to millions of peo- 
ple around the world. 

Yet as I reflect on these remarkable 
successes, I realize that they offer us many 



challenges, as well as opportunities, in the 
near future. Let me indicate just a few of the 
steps which, with the concurrence of the 
Board of Directors, I have taken in order for 
us to meet those challenges and realize some 
of those opportunities. These steps entail the 
reorganization of several of the Society's 
committees and the strengthening of their 
charges. A list of Society committees, their 
membership, and charges is available today 
at the entrance to the church, and it will be 
published in the next issue of the Bulletin. 

The Finance Committee, under the 
leadership of Robert Galvin, who has 
graciously accepted appointment as the 
Society's Vice President of Finance, will now 
meet with the Society's Executive Director 
and Business Manager six times per year 
(exclusive of Board meetings) in order to 
maintain a running review of all aspects of 
the Society's finances and make recommen- 
dations on how we can achieve economies at 
all operational levels. The Committee will 
also develop an investment policy for the 
Society which the Board will take up at its 
January 2002 meeting. Finally, the 
Committee will join Tom Harris and me as 
we develop strategies to increase the size of, 
and insure continued high returns on, the 
Society's endowment. 

For 2001-2002, the Society's and the 
Walden Woods Project's respective Education 
and Research Committees have been merged 
into one committee. This committee, which 
will be called the Education and Research 
Committee with a membership that has been 
jointly appointed by the President of the 
Thoreau Society and the Executive Director 
of the Walden Woods Project, has been 
charged to develop the means whereby the 
educational and research missions of both 
the Thoreau Society and the Walden Woods 
Project can be developed in such a way as to 
reinforce each other and realize the potential 
for education and research at The Thoreau 
Institute at Walden Woods, which is a 
collaboration of the Walden Woods Project 
and the Thoreau Society. I am pleased to 
report that Robert Hudspeth of the Society's 
Board of Directors and Jayne Gordon, 
Director of Education at the Thoreau 
Institute, have agreed to co-chair this 
Committee and to steer its deliberations to a 
successful conclusion. 

The Friends ofWalden Pond Committee, 
which I chair, will this year take on the very 
targeted charge to continue to develop the 
Society's relationship with DEM, and 
through The Friends, to expand on and fund 
educational, research, and other public 
opportunities at Walden Pond that are con- 
sistent with our mission as a Society and our 
service as The Friends ofWalden Pond. To 
that end, and on behalf of the Committee, I 



am pleased to report that we have already 
embarked on a fundraising campaign that 
will underwrite the work in which we have 
joined with DEM as The Friends. Responding 
to an open letter and appeal that I mailed to 
all households in Concord and Lincoln in 
April and May, our neighbors have already 
donated $5,180 to The Friends ofWalden 
Pond; to show its own commitment to our 
service as The Friends, on July 12 — Henry's 
184th birthday — the Society's Board of 
Directors matched that sum! 

Finally, I have appointed (or reappointed) 
three ad hoc committees of the Board. 

The Walden in 2004: A Sesquicentennial 
Celebration Steering Committee, which the 
Board of Directors first constituted last year 
with Joel Myerson and me as co-chairs, will 
continue to advise the Board on activities 
sponsored and fully or partially funded by 
the Society with respect to this celebration. 
With the concurrence of the Board, the 
Committee has already determined that the 
events sponsored by the Society in 2004 will 
be (1) an expanded Annual Gathering, (2) a 
series of public events developed in connec- 
tion with the Society's position as The 
Friends ofWalden Pond, and (3) possibly an 
expanded "special" issue of The Concord 
Saunterer devoted to Walden the book and 
Walden the place. The Committee will also 
advise the Board and represent the Society's 
interests in discussions with local, national, 
and international organizers of other events 
marking the 150 th year since the publication 
of Walden. 

Before discussing my brief charge to an 
ad hoc By-Laws Committee, which will be 
chaired by Robert Hudspeth, I should like to 
say a few words about my view of by-laws 
generally. I understand by-laws as legal 
instruments by which complex organizations 
such as the Thoreau Society state their mis- 
sion, establish procedures by which they 
conduct their affairs, and assign legal respon- 
sibility for the organization's finances, the 
conduct of the organization's affairs, and the 
like in officers and directors (or by whatever 
name they may be called). I do not believe 
that by-laws are to be devised and entered 
into lightly; I do not believe that, once 
implemented, by-laws should be changed 
without great care and due deliberation. 

That said, I believe that as they now stand 
the current By-Laws of the Thoreau Society 
have been carefully and thoughtfully devised 
and put into practice. Any errors that 
occurred in devising and implementing our 
By-Laws have been publicly apologized for 
by those who were responsible for them, and 
all have been rectified. 

In recent years, the only concern that has 



con 



tinned on page 19 



Thoreau in the Military Classroom 



Matthew Ignoffo, Ph.D. 



Teaching American Literature at the 
Prop School for West Point, I work 
with enlisted men and women, ages 
17-21, who need academic strengthening 
before they can gain admission to the 
Military Academy. Many of the students are 
recruited athletes or minorities, and few are 
well-read in any American authors. 

Presenting Thoreau to military students 
has its own unique challenges. At best, these 
students think that he was a hermit who 
lived his whole life in a remote wilderness. 
Some think of him as the "first American 
hippie" because they have heard he was an 
anti-war protestor. Over the years, these 
preconceptions have interfered with my 
students' willingness to read Walden and 
"On the Duty of Civil Disobedience." I will 
describe the approach I use to introduce my 
students to the real Henry Thoreau. 

First, I explain to them the mythology of 
the American Dream. America was created 
in the full burst of the Romantic Movement 
as what seemed to be the last best hope of 
humanity. The American Dream originally 
involved a mystical sense of rebirth in a New 
Eden, an ideal haven of multitudes united in 
harmony, the one family of humankind in 
union with nature. However, the Dream 
decayed into the capitalistic opulence of 
commercial materialism. Contrasting the 
difference between glowing ideal and 
tarnished reality is a recurring American 
theme in such diverse works as Nathaniel 
Hawthorne's "Young Goodman Brown," 
Mark Twain's Gilded Age, and Oliver Stone's 
Watt Street. 

The two authors I focus on to illustrate 
this theme are Thoreau and Malcolm X. 
Students are assigned to read Walden, "Civil 
1 )isobedience," and The Autobiography of 
Malcolm A' looking for common ideas which 
they will have to discuss in a term paper. 
Connecting Thoreau with Malcolm X 
intrigues students. Although these two 
writers lived in very different times and seem 
at first to be very different men, I point out 
that both men are actually making the same 
point — namely, that what America pretended 
to be and what it has become are two very 
different things. Both men kept searching for 
ideals to believe in, and even when their faith 
was severely shaken, they still held onto the 
sense that there was a deep-down reality to 
the ideal American Dream of universal 
harmony, oneness with nature, and spiritual 
enlightenment. 

Vs I horeau performed his experiment in 
living during the mid 1840s, he had a 



remarkable prescience to foresee trends that 
I illustrate by using the Titanic disaster and 
the 1983 Godfrey Reggio film Koyaanisqatsi. 
The Titanic was the embodiment of the 
Gilded Age, reflecting the idea that science 
and technology — the two new gods of the 
Industrial Revolution— had benevolently 
made all things possible. For example, man 
could tame lightning, bring it indoors, and 
illuminate the world. The Titanic was an 
equally Promethean achievement demon- 
strating that humans were on a modern 
odyssey of endlessly evolving progress, true 
masters of their fate and captains of their 
destiny. The ship was a microcosm of her 



Here was a 

fiery young idealist 

who believed that 

America was 

the New Eden 



own world, and her destruction was not only 
a shocking end to the superficial optimism of 
the Gilded Age, but also an ominous forecast 
of what would soon follow: the "Great War" 
to end all wars, the "lost generation," the 
stock market crash, the depression, World 
War II, the nuclear age, the Cold War, acid 
rain, global warming, the "information age," 
etc. The Gilded Age's new mechanical gods 
were obviously not so benevolent as they had 
first seemed, and Henry Thoreau could see 
this trend in the Fitchburg Railroad which 
regularly chugged by Walden, telegraph lines 
carrying messages between Boston and 
Texas, and factories that made munitions to 
fight the war against Mexico. 

The disturbing minimalist film 
Koyaanisqatsi is an odd illustration of the 
contrast between America as "a place in the 
sun" and the brutal reality under the grand 
illusion that we have created for ourselves, 
the illusion which Thoreau could see taking 
shape in 1845. The movie demonstrates key 
themes of the corrupted American Dream: 
the helpless-hopeless syndrome of dehuman- 
ized people herded together and turned into 
blank faced robots; a clockwork society ruled 
by its own gadgets but disconnected from 
nature; the human desire to find a sense of 
meaning and belonging in the midst of a 
mechanistic world; and the schizophrenic 



sense of being a stranger to one's self. 
Thoreau recognized these themes as he sat by 
the pond and listened to the forest during his 
two-year residence at Walden. 

Like Thoreau, Malcolm X was a dynamic 
person, always learning and changing. He 
searched for a Romantic Age sense of -value, 
something deeper than the thrills offered by 
drugs, sex, money, and power. He is the 
quintessential Twentieth-Century man 
searching for dignity and identity, the elusive 
qualities Thoreau fsund in himself at 
Walden. Malcolm X summed up the original 
American Dream when he described his 
journey to Mecca: "Packed in the plane were 
white, black, brown, red, and yellow people. . . 
— all together, brothers!" (330) He could 
easily be one of Thoreau's fellow 
Transcendentalists when he stated, "Truly a 
paradise could exist wherever material 
progress and spiritual values could be prop- 
erly balanced." (355) 

Seeking this paradise by carefully observing 
the details of nature, Thoreau warned us 
against leading the "fool's life" of "quiet des- 
peration" (16, 18). Seeing the threat of 
humans becoming "tools of their tools," he 
counseled a life of "simplicity and naked- 
ness" (38). He advised that if we disregarded 
the lessons of nature, we would not only 
destroy nature but also ourselves. Marching 
to the beat of a "different drummer" (230), 
he counseled us to be fully awake, not to be 
fooled by our own illusions. 

Once all these ideas are established, L 
return to the students' preconception of 
Thoreau as the "first American hippie." 
When students realize why he was angered 
by the poll tax, by the war with Mexico, and 
by slavery, they can appreciate the insights he 
expressed as he weighed the difference 
between the ideal that America set as its goal 
and the corrupted reality that replaced that 
ideal. Researching their term papers, 
students discover for themselves the fire that 
burned inside Thoreau, his desire to make a 
better society, a better government, and a 
better world. Some stubbornly cling to their 
view of the author as an angry fussbudget. 
However, most students are impressed by 
the spiritual passion and intellectual anger 
fueling Thoreau's courageous confrontation 
of the corrupt power structure during his 
time and setting the example for people like 
Mohandas Gandhi, Martin Luther King, Jr., 
and Nelson Mandela. 

In my classroom, I have a photograph ot 
Thoreau taken less than a war before his 
death in 1862. As we begin our study of his 



Teaching, from page 6 

writing, I merely point the picture out, but at 
the conclusion, I ask the students to reexamine 
his face, looking more closely at his eyes. 
Here was a fiery young idealist who believed 
that America was the New Eden. 
Disillusionment ravaged him as slavery and 
state's rights tore the new country apart. He 
was witnessing the second fall of Eden. In the 
Bible, the loss of paradise was followed by 
Cain's murder of his brother Able. Thoreau 
would have regarded the Civil War as a war 
between brothers and therefore a confirma- 
tion of the loss of innocence. 

In the photograph, Thoreau's eyes 
express an infinite, profound sadness. While 
the diagnosed cause of his death was pneu- 
monia, I explain to my students that I believe 
he died of a broken heart, having witnessed 
the loss of the idealized society he had so 
ardently advocated in Walden and "On the 
Duty of Civil Disobedience." 

Once my students view Thoreau with this 
perspective, they see not an anti-war crack- 
pot but a true patriot who believed in 
America with every cell of his brain, a citizen 
who loved America with every atom of his 
heart. For military students, this understanding 
of Thoreau is enlightening because it makes 
them reexamine their own view of the world 
in which they live, the world where the ideal 
America Dream still struggles against the 
American Nightmare. 

References: 

Malcolm X & Haley, A. The Autobiography of 

Malcolm X. New York: Ballantine Books, 

1973. 
Reggio, G. (Director). Koyaanisqatsi 

[Videotape]. Carmel, CA: Pacific Arts 

Video Records. 1983. 
Thoreau, H. D. Walden, or, A Life in the Woods 

and "Civil Disobedience." New York: 

Collier Books, 1962. 

Matthew Ignoffo is Instructor of the Success 
Development Course at the United States 
Military Academy Preparatory School. 



Accessing the Thoreau Society 
Collections 

Contact Jeff Cramer, Curator of 
Collections at the Thoreau Institute 

M-F 10 a.m.-4 p.m. 
(781) 259-4730 or curator@walden.org 

For an online catalog and finding aids, 
visit our Web site at: 

www. walden.org/institute 



Used Books Wanted 




Cleaning out your attic? 
Simplifying your life? 

If you have used books relating to 
Thoreau (including Emerson, 
Transcendentalism, nineteenth- 
century New England history, etc.) 
please consider making a donation 
to the Thoreau Society. 

Support the Thoreau Society 

We will resell the books in our 
Shop at Walden Pond, on our 
e-commerce site at www.walden.org, 
and through a mail-order flyer. 
Procedes will support our 
publications and activities. 

Receive First Notice 

As a member, you will receive first 
notice of these used books either 
by mail or e-mail. 

Create an Opportunity 

For many students and 
Thoreauvians abroad, the books 
you have may not be available any 
other way. By contributing your 
books to the Society, you can be 
sure that we will find appreciative 
new owners. 

Quick and Easy 

Simply box 'em up and ship 'em out: 

The Thoreau Society 

44 Baker Farm 

Lincoln, MA 01773-3004 



Curator's Column 

Jeffrey S. Cramer 



This past year has been a very exciting one 
for me as Curator. 

At this point, every book in the collec- 
tions — over 8000 volumes — has been cata- 
loged, and can be searched through the 
Henley Library Catalog on our website. In 
addition, preliminary Finding Aids have 
been created for the collections. The level of 
information at present ranges from general 
categories of material to specific item-level 
listings. A search engine has been created 
allowing for the searching of these finding 
aids, individually or collectively. Over the 
next few years the finding aids will become 
more detailed, allowing for greater access to 
the nearly 100,000 non-book items. 

A finding aid has also been created for 
the periodicals in the collections. This is a 
title list, allowing for a quick review, with 
each title linked to the Henley Library 
Catalog for holdings information. 

On the Research Collections web page, 
individual pages have been created for each 
collection, with a variety of information and 
links. 

Some recent gifts include: 

• Original program: "Harvard 
University, Cambridge. Order of 
Performances for Exhibition, Monday, 
July 13, 1835" which lists, as #3, "A 
Greek Dialogue. 'Decius and Cato.' 
Manlius Stimson Clarke, Norton. 
David Henry Thoreau, Concord." 
Donated by Betty Spelman. 

• Original 1962 Leonard Baskin print 
of Thoreau; and, 1967 Thoreau 
Commemorative Stamp sheet, signed 
by Baskin. Donated by Joe Gilbert. 

• 20" x 30" signed limited edition Iris 
print of Boston photographer John 
Suiter's image of Thoreau's Walden 
house replica. Donated by the 
photographer. 



The Curator is available from 8:00 to 4:00 
Monday through Friday and can be reached 
at: The Thoreau Institute at Walden Woods, 
44 Baker Farm, Lincoln, MA 01773-3004. 
Phone/fax: 781-259-4730. E-nuul: 
] eff.Cramer@walden.org. 



200 1 Annual Gathering 




and John Mack with two of this year's three Walter 1 larding Distinguished Service Av 
irish lawn for reading of "Walking I >assow«Walls presenting al the Masonic 

ireau Edition at the business meeting; 5 1 Peter Allien makes bird 
mber Robert Gah lerger wait for a r< Waltei Brain gears up 

for the annu alden Pond State Reservation I leads a group un a tour bl 

ilson, and Jeffrey Cramer at I n'st Parish Church; l 'i fayni resides 

nth Rick D rson and l'ln llis < ole; 10) 1 (enise Morrisse) 

; painting of Katahdin; 12) Thoreau Society Presidents 
1 the Saturday evening deception 



2001 

Thoreau Society 

Awards 

Thoreau Society Medal - 
Edward 0. Wilson 

Distinguished 

Achievement Award 

Robert D. Richardson, Jr. 

Walter Harding 

Distinguished Service Award 

Robert]. Galvin 

John D. Mack 

Lorna C. Mack 



Thoreau Society Visits Japan 



A the invitation of Soka Gakkai 

/\ '["International (SGI), a Tokyo-based 
J~ \. l^Buddhist lay organization, and SGI 
President Daisaku Ikeda, Thoreau Society 
representatives Ronald A. Bosco, Joel 
Myerson, and Tom Harris spent May 3 
through May 8 in Japan discussing Thoreau 
and Transcendentalism with SGI members 
and Dr. Ikeda, who is also the honorary pres- 
ident of SGI's parent organization, Soka 
Gakkai (meaning "society for the creation of 
value"). Through private meetings, public 
presentations, and newspaper and television 
coverage, this visit placed Thoreau and his 
intellectual, literary, social, and political 
legacy before nearly thirteen million SGI 
members throughout fhe world. 

The tour began on May 1 and 2 in Los 
Angeles as Bosco, Myerson, and Harris 
visited the newly completed Soka University 
of America campus in Aliso/Veijo, 
California, before the university's official 
May 3 opening. There, University President 
Daniel Y. Habuki and Dr. Eric Hauber, Vice 
President of Enrollment Services and Long 
Range Planning and Professor of Cell 
Biology, led the three through the impressive 
stucco campus buildings and state-of-the-art 
educational facilities as faculty and adminis- 
trators explained the guiding philosophy for 
the new liberal arts college: "to foster a 
steady stream of global citizens committed to 
living a contributive life." Soka University of 
America will enroll its first students, a class 
of 125 dravnn from seventeen countries 
around the world, this fall. 

On the evening of May 3, Bosco, 
Myerson, and Harris were greeted in Tokyo 
by SGI representatives and twenty local Soka 
Gakkai members. The next day, the three vis- 
ited the headquarters of Soka Gakkai, the 
Siekyo Printing Press, and the Min-On 
Concert Association, and they met with fac- 
ulty and researchers from the Institute of 
Oriental Philosophy. 

The Seikyo Presj, Min-On Concert 
Association, and Institute of Oriental 
Philosophy have all been established during 
Dr. Ikeda's presidency. The Seikyo Press, 
under the direction of Mr. Osamu Matsuoka, 
publishes the Seikyo Shimbun, Soka Gakkai's 
daily newspaper, which has a circulation of 
5.5 million, and numerous titles relating to 
the organization's mission. Under the leader- 
ship of Mr. Masafumi Tomioka and his col- 
leagues Hiroyasu Kobayashi and Nobuyuki 
Motohashi, the Min-On Concert Association 
introduces classical music to less privileged 
populations in Japan and throughout the 
world, serves as a repository for the largest 




Bosco presents Soka Gakkai International 
President Daisaku Ikeda with the Society's first 
ever Honorary Life Membership. 

collection of musical scores, recordings, 
instruments, and artifacts in Japan, and 
realizes Dr. Ikeda's belief that cultures can 
achieve a productive and lasting understanding 
of each other through the Arts. Finally, 
through its magnificent research facilities in 
Japan, India, France, the United Kingdom, 
Hong Kong and Russia, the Institute of 
Oriental Philosophy seeks to clarify the rele- 
vance of Eastern philosophy in the modern 
world and publishes the Journal of Oriental 
Studies, one of the world's premier journals 
in the field. Bosco and Myerson had exten- 
sive and informative discussions about 
Thoreau and his relation to Emerson and 
American Transcendentalism in general with 
Dr. Yoichi Kawada, Director of the Institute, 
and Professors Toshie Kurihara and Toru 
Shiotsu of the Institute. Before leaving Japan, 
Bosco was presented with two beautiful edi- 
tions of the Lotus Sutra in English and a 
most impressive facsimile edition of a Lotus 
Sutra manuscript by Dr. Kawada and his col- 
leagues; he has deposited these as gifts from 
the Institute of Oriental Philosophy in the 
Thoreau Society 
Collections for use by the 
many students and 
scholars of Thoreau who, 
visit our collections. 

The focal point of 
the Tokyo trip was the 
Soka University Alumni 
Day on May 5. Over 
eleven thousand gradu- 
ates of the Soka 
University of Japan 
returned to the campus 
in Hachioji City, 
Tokyo, for the celebra- 
tion and for an address Society representatives 
by Dr. Ikeda, whose life- 



long interest in Thoreau, Emerson, and 
Whitman was apparent throughout his talk 
and also evidenced by his personally anno- 
tated copies of books by these authors which 
had been placed on display: Bosco and Ikeda, 
speaking through an interpreter prior to the 
main addresses, discussed the legacy of 
Thoreau and the need for poetry in today's 
classrooms. Joining the discussion were 
professors from Soka University and the 
Institute of Oriental Philosophy. 

On the afternoon of the 5 th , Bosco spoke 
before nearly seven thousand people in the 
Soka University main auditorium (an addi- 
tional four thousand people saw and heard 
his address via closed circuit TV in the 
campus's adjoining central gymnasium); 
Bosco's address, which concentrated on 
Thoreau and the legacy of his social thought 
in the twentieth century, and on the mission 
of the Thoreau Society, was translated into 
Japanese as he spoke and it appeared in 
Japanese in the Seikyo Shimbun on May 6. 
At the conclusion of his address, Bosco 
presented Dr. Ikeda with an Honorary Life 
Membership in the Thoreau Society. 

In his address, which followed the 
presentation, Dr. Ikeda referred to the lasting 
influence of Thoreau's ideals and to the rele- 
vance of his concept of individualism in the 
modern age. He also drew several parallels 
between Thoreau's character and that of 
Soka Gakkai founder Tsunesaburo 
Makiguchi (1871-1944). Makiguchi, who 
founded the organization in 1930 as an 
educators' society, was imprisoned for his 
opposition to World War II. (Dr. Ikeda was 
moved by the fact that Thoreau Society 
founder Walter Harding had been a consci- 
entious objector during World War II.) After 
Makiguchi died in prison in 1944, his 
mission was carried on by his student Josei 



continued on page IS 




.ire greeted at the Soka School, 



10 



Remarks at Soka University 



Ronald A. Bosco 



President Ikeda, and Members of the 
Soka University and Soka Gakkai 
International Communities: 
On behalf of the officers, Board of 
Directors, and members of the Thoreau 
Society, I am truly honored to be here today 
to formally inaugurate what I believe will be 
a lasting friendship between the Soka 
University and Soka Gakkai International 
communities and the Thoreau Society. Your 
celebration on this occasion of the succession 
of your founders' spirit to new generations 
suggests to me, and I tcust to you, that our 
mutual dedication to education, self-culture, 
and peace serves us as rich ground on which 
to form and nurture 
our friendship. 

. The Thoreau 
Society was established 
exactly sixty years ago, 
and since then it has 
grown to be the largest 
and oldest society in 
the world devoted to 
the legacy of an 
American author. Over 
the years, individuals 
from all walks of life — 
literary academics; 
religious, social, and 
political reformers; 
environmentalists and 
land preservationists; 
students and practi- 
tioners of the unique 
brand of individualism 
that emerged in nine- 
teenth century 
America; professionals 
in art history, natural 
history and science, and geography and 
urban planning; and, of course, lovers of 
nature — have joined the Society with this 
common mission: to honor Henry David 
Thoreau 



Our members and the varied interests 
and talents that they bring to the Society 
reflect the extraordinary breadth of the intel- 
lectual and imaginative hold that Thoreau 
himself exerts on American culture — indeed, 
on global culture — to this very day. But two 
questions that even many of his followers 
routinely ask about Thoreau are: 

How did this man, a man who died in 
1862 after living a life of relative obscurity, 
a man whose friends and neighbors often 
characterized as a solitary, anti-social per- 
sonality, a man whose writings never attract- 
ed wide readership during his life, achieve 
such a devoted following? And, " 




by stimulating interest in and fos- 
tering education about his life, works, 
and philosophy and his place in his 
world and ours; by encouraging 
research on his life and writings; and by 
advocating for the preservation of those 
portion- o) America's natural land- 
scape — Walden Pond, Cape Cod, and 
the Maine Woods — that Thoreau lum- 
sel) explored, developed as means to 
probe the depth oj his own nature, and 
immortalized in his writings. 



President Ronald A. Bosco delivers an address on Thoreau to a combined audience of 1 1 ,000 
alumni of the Soka University in Japan. 

Why, during the twentieth century, were 
this man's ideas instrumental in inspiring 
such momentous cultural transformations as 
the nonviolent revolution led by Mahatma 
Gandhi in India, the Civil Rights movement 
led by the Reverend Martin Luther King, ]r. 
in the United States, and contemporary envi- 
ronmentalism which, beginning in America 
during the 1960s and 1970s, has now 
emerged aS a world-wide cause? 

In his essay on "Character" (1866), Ralph 
Waldo Emerson, who in the early years of 
their friendship served the young Thoreau as 
a mentor, provides us with an answer to 
these questions. In "Character," Emerson 
wrote that from time to time Providence 
sends to us a few persons — "teachers,-" he 
called them — who, by their "sentiment and 
by their habitual grandeur of view," "elevate" 
the world iii which we live and work. 



Thoreau was truly a teacher, and I believe 
that Thoreau's genius and originality as a 
teacher are best understood as qualities that 
emerge out of a series of complex relation- - 
ships in which Thoreau interacted with and 
reflected upon the larger world of which 
he was a part: with othe'r people, as in his 
relations with his neighbors in Concord, 
Massachusetts; with the economic, social, 
and political institutions of his day, against 
which he typically assumed an adversarial 
posture; and with nature, which provided 
him with his greatest economic, social, and 
political independence and well-being, and 
offered him the greatest opportunity for 

insight into himself. 

As is often true of 
the lessons of great 
teachers, the power of 
the lessons that 
Thoreau has provided 
to the generations 
that succeed him is 
not derived from his 
personality or even 
from the particular 
works that he wrote 
or acts of civil protest 
that he performed. 
The authority of 
Thoreau's lessons 
derive from his spirit, 
and from the humility 
with which he first 
prayed for, and then 
acted upon, that 
inward experience, 
that inward light, 
through which he 
recognized the signifi- 
cance inherent in nature as well as in men 
and their institutions. Whether drawn from 
his reflections on nature, on other people, or 
on institutions, Thoreau's most significant 
lessons for himself and for those of us who 
follow him were always directed inward: to the 
symbolic or intellectual energy and wisdom 
from outside of himself that he internalized as 
means to realize and sustain his own humanity. 

The most valuable lesson that Thoreau 
delivers to us today is that all cultural trans- 
formation begins with the individual, begins 
from within. This is also the lesson that 
Gandhi, Martin Luther King, Jr., and the 
early champions of environmentalism drew 
from Thoreau. When he states in "Resistance 
to Civil Government," "There will never be a 
really free and enlightened State until the 
State comes to recognize the individual as a 
higher and independent power, from which 



II 



all of its own power and authority are 
derived, and treats him accordingly," 
Thoreau is surely commenting on the limita- 
tions of the state, but he is also, and more 
particularly, remarking on the importance of 
the individual recognizing the "higher and 
independent power" that he possesses, a 
quality that Emerson once called "the 
infinitude of the private man." Without the 
individual realizing his own power, acknowl- 
edging that such power 
comes only from within, 
and then transforming the 
world around him 
through the appropriate 
exercise of that power, the 
state becomes dominant 
and creates a society char- 
acterized by oppression 
and the most crass variety 
of materialism. In 
Walden, which is his per- 
sonal study of the possi- 
bilities that nature offers 
for self-culture, Thoreau's 
emphasis is again on the 
individual's measuring 
and nurturing of the life 
within, a point he aptly Students of the Soka 
makes when he writes, "A 
lake is the landscape's most beautiful and 
expressive feature. It is earth's eye; looking 
into which the beholder 
measures the depth of his own nature." 
As I have reread the text of the Soka 
Gakkai International Charter over the past 
several weeks, I have paused often at this 
statement in the Preamble: 

We believe that Nichiren Daishonin's 
Buddhism, a humanistic philosophy 
of infinite respect for the sanctity of 
life and all-encompassing compas- 
sion, enables individuals to cultivate 
and bring forth their inherent 
wisdom and, nurturing the creativity 
of the human spirit, to surmount the 
difficulties and crises facing 
humankind and realize a society of 
peaceful and prosperous coexistence. 

What I find so powerful, so moving 
about this passage is that, as it draws 
attention to the religious and philosophical 
foundations of Soka Gakkai International, it 
also proposes that all societal change begins 
with the cultivation of the "inherent 
wisdom" of the individual and nurturing of 
"the creativity of the human spirit." It is on 
this ground that I believe the members of 
Soka University, Soka Gakkai International, 
and Thoreau Society meet and should begin 
those conversations out of which productive 
friendships grow. I cannot imagine a more 



appropriate way for the Thoreau Society to 
extend our founders' vision of how best to 
preserve the legacy of Henry David Thoreau 
than for us to meet with all persons of good 
will with whom we share a devotion to ideals 
such as these. My enthusiasm for this 
moment and my optimism for our future are 
best conveyed in the subtle prose poetry of 
one of my favorite passages from Thoreau's 
Journal. Touched by the vivifying warmth of 




School system outside of their campus in Tokyo. 

an early spring day in 1853, Thoreau wrote, 
"[T]he future is worth expecting. 
Encouraged, I set out once more to climb the 
mountain of the earth, for my steps are sym- 
bolical steps, and in all my walking I have 
not reached the top of the earth yet." 

In closing, President Ikeda please allow 
me to state again how honored I am to stand 
before you today. The founders of our 
respective societies whose spirit we honor — 
Henry David Thoreau and Presidents 
Makiguchi and Toda — understood, as you 
have said, that, "A great revolution of 
character in just a single individual will help 
achieve a change in the destiny of a nation 
and, further, will cause a change in the 
destiny of humankind." Through the 
example of your own life-long devotion to 
the principles of Buddhist activism and 
philosophy, you have inspired a generation 
to devote themselves to pursuing the 
"human revolution" that follows from the 
individual engaging in the process of 
self-reformation, or, as Thoreau called it, 
self-culture. Your commitment to "humanism 
in action," to the transformation of the indi- 
vidual and of the cultures of the world 
through "Value-creating education" — 
through the pursuit of the ideals of peace, 
social justice, human rights, and respect for 
the ideas, opinions, and beliefs of others — 
through humanitarianism in all forms — 
through championing environmental 
protection — and through discerning the 



poetic relation in which the individual stands 
to nature — speaks profoundly to Emerson's 
ideal of the teacher: the person who, by his 
"habitual grandeur of view," elevates the 
world in which we all live and work. 

Thoreau wrote in his Journal on May 10, 
1853, "He is richest who hasinost use for 
nature as raw material of tropes and symbols 
with which to describe his life. If these gates 
of golden willows affect me, they correspond 
to the beauty and promise of 
some experience on which I 
am entering. If I am over- 
flowing with life, am rich in 
experience for which I lack 
expression, then nature will 
be my language full of poet- 
ry, — all nature will fable, and 
every natural phenomenon 
be a myth. The man of sci- 
ence, who is not seeking for 
expression but for a fact to 
be expressed merely, studies 
nature as a dead language. / 
pray for such inward experi- 
ence as will make nature sig- 
nificant" (emphasis added). 



Call for Nominations 

The Awards Committee of the Thoreau 

Society solicits nominations for the 

following awards: 

Thoreau Society Distinguished 

Achievement Award 

for an accomplishment that is limited in 

time and scope 

Walter Harding Distinguished 
Service Award 

for accomplishments in the areas 

included in the Thoreau Society's 

mission statement or for contributions 

that serve the Thoreau Society itself 

and/or 

Thoreau Society Medal 

for significant and sustained contribu- 
tions that exemplify the ideals and values 
represented by Henry Thoreau 

For more information, or to make a 

nomination, please contact the Awards 

Committee chair, Joel Myerson 

(myerson@gwm.sc.edu) or other 

members of the committee, Susie 

Carlisle (scarlisl@ziplink.net) or Bob 

Hudspeth (hudspeth@uor.edu). 

The deadline for nominations is 
15 February 2002. 



12 



Acceptance Speech of the Thoreau Society Honorary Life 
Membership at the Soka University Alumni Gathering 

1 May 5,2001, Daisaku Ikeda 



A fi Jieartfelt welcome and congratula- 
i-V JL V tions to Soka University alumni, 
graduates who have gathered today 
brimming with youthful zest and vigor! 

Ever since I was young, I have been a 
devoted reader of the works of Ralph Waldo 
Emerson, the great philosopher of the 
American Renaissance and mentor to Henry 
David Thoreau. 

Emerson wrote: "Friendship and associa- 
tion are very fine things, and a grand phalanx 
of the best of the human race, banded for 
some catholic object; yes, excellent..." 

Today, we have the peerless honor of 
welcoming a most distinguished delegation 
from the United States, members of the 
Thoreau Society who are truly great teachers, 
with their immense intellect and noble 
character. I wish to express my gratitude to 
you from the bottom of my heart for joining 
us today. 

This day is when graduates of Soka 
University return to their alma mater from 
every corner of Japan, from 50 countries 
over five continents, so that they too may 
band in "a grand phalanx" before they 
embark upon new epics of their own mak- 
ing. Thank you so very much! To those of 
you who have gathered at the Central 
Gymnasium, I thank you dearly for traveling 
long distances to join us on this occasion. I 
urge all of you to always forge ahead with 
youthful vigor, no matter what. You may 
grow older, and the years may begin to take 
their toll on you physically, but your spirit 
must always be young. The spirit, after all, is 
the most important. 

Also present today are representatives of 
the Soka Gakkai future Division, who are 
with us to celebrate our Successors' Day. My 
congratulations to each of you. Whether you 
go on to achieve greatness or not will 
determine whether the Soka Gakkai can 
enjoy a truly successful centennial celebra- 
tion in 2030. That is why I have such high 
expectations tor you to do your very best! 

President Bosco, Secretary Myerson, both 
of whom I hold in the highest esteem, 
together with the youth who shall succeed 
my work, and with the resolve to further 
learn the spirit of Thoreau, the great explorer 
of life's inner realm, and follow in his foot- 
steps, I wish to humbly accept the I fbnorary 
Life Membership of the esteemed Thoreau 
Society. I thank you for this great distinction 
from the bottom of my heart. 

A most telling incident took place in the 



summer of 1844. Thoreau, the poet of eternal 
youth, was 27 years old — the same age as 
most of you here today. Indeed, I understand 
that Mr. Thomas Harris, the Thoreau Society 
Executive Director who is also here with us, 
is a young 28 years of age. 

On that day some 160 years ago, 
Thoreau's mentor, Emerson, was planning to 
speak out against slavery at a rally to be held 
in Concord. However, the local church, 
being quite conservative at the time, took a 
dim view of Emerson's position and would 
not allow the rally to be held on its premises. 
Emerson was also denied the right to have 
the church bell rung to notify residents of 
the gathering. It had to be held at a court 
building instead, and the turnout suffered 
as a result. 

Thoreau, however, would not tolerate the 
affront his cherished mentor was forced to 
bear. Rejecting the constraints the authorities 
imposed, an infuriated Thoreau stormed 
into the church, his powerful arms striking 
its bell again and again. It was a resounding 
appeal to the citizens of Concord: Arise, 
sleeping souls! Gather, people of conscience! 
Come hear my mentor's cry for truth, and 
join our phalanx for justice! 

I have long held Emerson and Thoreau — 
who stood undaunted as mentor and 
disciple — as heroic figures, and I drew 
inspiration from them as I, too, extolled to 
the world the dawn of the ideals upheld by 
my mentor, Josei Toda. I have thrown myself 
into this struggle without cease to this day, 
never once succumbing to>(ear. 

According to Thoreau, "when you plant, 
or bury, a hero in his field, a crop of heroes is 
sure to spring up." This is the spirit that the 
Soka Gakkai epitomizes. Indeed, the citadels 
for peace that we have built around the 
world are impervious because they are 
founded on the heroism of common citizens, 
never to be defeated, never to be intimidated. 
That is why I hereby declare that the Soka 
Gakkai's triumph is total, for we have over- 
come even the most villainous acts by those 
who connive to sec us fail. 

The long-awaited dedication of the Aliso 
Viejo campus of Soka University of America 
has finally arrived. SUA is a liberal arts 
college for the 2 1 " century, an institution 
devoted to the ideals of humanistic educa- 
tion that Thoreau also embraced. In spite of' 
their busy schedules before traveling to 
Japan, our guests from the Thoreau Society 
took the trouble to visit the new campus to 



extend their warm felicitations for the occa- 
sion. Once again, allow me to express my 
heartfelt gratitude to you. 

Soka University in Japan, the Soka Schools 
in Tokyo and Kansai, and Soka Kindergartens 
of their respective countries have made 
dramatic strides over the years, a feat largely 
due to the long-standing support of our 
alumni. Among our graduates are those who 
were first accepted by Tokyo University and 
Kyoto University, yet such prestigious schools 
were spurned; instead, they chose to attend 
Soka University. I shall always remember you 
and the courage and convection you showed in 
making such a decision. 

Many freshmen standouts entering Soka 
University this year have demonstrated 
similar resolve. They too passed the entrance 
examinations of the finest schools, from 
Japan's national universities to private insti- 
tutions like Keio and Waseda, even China's 
premier seat of higher learning, Fudan 
University-yet they elected to enroll at Soka. 
I therefore ask every member of the university 
faculty and administration to respond to our 
students' sincerity and commitment in kind, 
that no effort is to be spared addressing their 
needs. The scrum of friendship, that those of 
you engaged in value creating education have 
built up over the years, is being joined by an 
endless procession of immensely gifted and 
hardworking youth from around the world. 

Francois Due de La Rochefoucauld, the 
18 th century French author, observed that, 
"The greatest Treasure in this World, is a 
true Friend, and yet it is a Treasure which 
Men least trouble themselves to look after." 
Every member of the Soka University alumni 
should be proud that their lives shine with 
this most precious treasure. 

You may have felt a touch of nostalgia 
being reunited with the statue of Leo Tolstoy 
that stands before this auditorium. It is a 
well-known fact of history that the Russian 
novelist had the audacity to parade 
Thoreau's thoughts in his writings at a time 
when the censors of Czarist Russia were 
giving them careful scrutiny. Tolstoy had 
succeeded Thoreau in lifting the torch 
against tyranny, using the power of the pen 
to wage a struggle calling for a great social 
reformation that arose from a revolution of 
the inner self. 

A person whose life is founded on an 
unshakable philosophy will never be misled 
by the absurdity perpetrated'by the powerful 
or swayed by superficial trends. We must live 



13 



out our lives with wisdom and strength, 
never to stray from the laws that govern the 
universe. That is the quintessence of Thoreau's 
spiritual legacy, his wisdom, like endless waves, 
to encompass the entire world. 

Tsunesaburo Makiguchi, the father of 
Soka education who gave his life for peace, 
felt no disgrace was worse than the praise 
extended by fools. He upheld his faith and 
conviction to the very end, accepting every 
abuse and persecution as a great honor. 

The following account is found in 
Pedagogical Thoughts, Theories and Men, a 
history of modem education in Japan 
published in 1943: "As to the well-known 
primary school principals in Tokyo during 
the Taisho Era ( 1912-26), it is to be regretted 
that not a single individual commanded 
admiration. Instead, the truly great educators 
were hidden among the ranks of teachers 
who persevered in obscurity. And the most 
outstanding among them was Principal 
Tsunesaburo Makiguchi." 

Therein lies the greatness of our late 
mentor, founder of the Soka Gakkai. 
Makiguchi was among the first in Japan to 
advocate the harmonious coexistence of 
nature and humanity, an understanding that 
was also deeply shared by Thoreau. 

In any event, it is the person who takes a 
valiant stand in an hour of need, battling for 
justice to the very end, who lives on in glory in 
our hearts. Such people attain immortality 
through the drama of their lives, the tale of 
their deeds to be passed on from generation to 
generation. This was Thoreau's view of history. 

"There is never an instant's truce," 
Thoreau maintained, "between virtue and 
vice." That is why he chose to set forth into 
the harsh realities of society, to teach and 
demonstrate to us through his own actions 
the manner in which a person may persevere 
in the relentless and ever-vigilant practice of 
self-reformation. 

He imparts an equally profound message 
to us when he wrote, "The effect of a good 
government is to make life more valuable, — 
of a bad one, to make it less valuable." If we 
do not actively engage in the immediate 
issues of politics and society, then we can 
never establish a life of genuine value. The 
philosopher thus appeals to our soul with 
these words: Accept the challenge! Take 
action! 

Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr., the human 
rights champion who fearlessly upheld the 
ideals of Thoreau since his days as a student, 
wrote the following: "History has thrust 
upon our generation an indescribably 
important destiny-to complete a process of 
democratization which our nation has too 
long developed too slowly..." 

I believe there is no better time than now 
for those youth imbued with true sincerity 



and integrity, to maintain a sharp vigil over 
the political course of this country. I urge my 
dear friends, the alumni of Soka University, to 
stand up for the sake of our nation, for the 
cause of peace. I ask that you exert every fiber 
of your being to this struggle, whose outcome 
will be crowned with delightful victory! 

Tenacity and effort is what ensures victory, 
a formula for success that applies as equally 
to the individual as it does to the organiza- 
tion. Without these two qualities, every 
struggle is doomed to fail. 

Thoreau had his gaze set firmly upon the 
/ future of humanity. I, too, am looking beyond 
the day when I shall no longer be here. 

A key requirement of leadership is fore- 
sight. Thoreau envisioned that "in the last 
stage of civilization Poetry, Religion, and 
Philosophy will be one... "The leaders of 
tomorrow must be endowed with a poetic 
mind, inspired by strong faith and empow- 
ered by a vast and profound philosophical 
understanding. We live in an age in 
desperate need for genuine leadership. 
People around the world yearn for it. I 
earnestly hope that a class of the most 
capable leaders shall rise from among your 
ranks. The true poetic mind alluded to by 
^Thoreau possesses a cheerful optimism that 
cannot be discouraged, a robust view of life 
and the world unfettered by trivial matters. 
"The poet will maintain serenity in spite of 
all disappointments," writes Thoreau. "He 
is expected to preserve an unconcerned 
and healthy outlook over the world, while 
he lives." 

We too must forge on, undaunted by 
adversity, our spirits joyful and unbounded 
as we soar far above the trifling abuse and 
mockery that so often attempts to deny our 
advance. Our stage, after all, is the world, our 
task truly global in scale. 

Thoreau's poetic mind is also honed to 
overcome every challenge, the obstacles that 
arise to impede one's progress, to the very 
end. To achieve this, one's spirit must be fired 
by the thrill of victory and tempered by a 
tenacity of purpose. I too vow to stoke the 
flames of Thoreau's poetic passion in my 
heart, a world poet laureate bequeathing every 
line and verse for justice's ultimate victory. 

May 6 th of this year marks the 140 th 
anniversary of Thoreau's passing. In 2003, 
200 years will have passed since the birth of 
Ralph Waldo Emerson. A year after that, we 
fete the sesquicentennial anniversary of the 
publication of Thoreau's seminal work, 
Walden, or Life in the Woods. As such, I 
pray that the esteemed Thoreau Society be 
blessed by prosperity for all time, that it 
continue in this new century to inspire in 
all of us the exquisite hues of a harmonious 
life lived creatively. 

In closing, I would like to dedicate a. 



passage by Walt Whitman, whom Thoreau 
admired as well. I send these words to all of 
you, whom I so deeply cherish; as you pre- 
pare to depart from this seat of learning once 
again, to cast forth upon a journey fraught 
with challenge and adversity in your quest to 
fulfill the purpose of your life. 

In his poem, Whitman advises us not be 
hindered by jealousy or division: 

"my comrade, 
Yet we walk unheld, free, the whole 
earth over, journeying up and down 
till we make our ineffaceable mark 
upon time and the diverse eras" 

I urge all of you to make your mark upon 
the path you have chosen to walk, to always be 
true to your mission in life until the very end. 

The Soka Alumni is a gathering of the 
lion-hearted. And we must now stand as 
boldly as the king of lions, rising up together 
and roar as one! Roar in triumph! 

I will always be praying for each of you, 
my treasured friends, that you may lead a life 
of health, success and victory. Never lose 
your vigor and cheer! I am truly grateful that 
you have come here today from around the 
world. Thank you very much! 



Thank you 

to the following advertisers 

for supporting 

the Thoreau Society's 

publications: 

Commonwealth Editions 

Island Press 

Library of America 

^Middlesex Savings Bank 

If you would like to add your 

support to the Society's 

publications program, 

please contact Tom Harris at (781 ) 

259-4750 or 

Tom«Harris@walden.org 



14 



Book Notes: William Cain's Historical Guide to Thoreau 



Randall Conrad 



William Ii. Cain. ed. A 

Historical Guide to Henry 
David Thoreau. New York: 
Oxford University Press, 

2000. 285 pp. $35.00 hard- 
cover; SI 6.95 paperbound. 

In this volume, the fourth in 
a series providing context for . 
masterworks of the national liter- 
ature, five notable Thoreauvians 
draw upon evolving fields such as 
material culture studies to illumi- 
nate the social environment that 
generated the later Journal, "Civil 
Disobedience," Walden, and the 
stereotyping of Thoreau himself into a 
Concord eccentric. 

In the early spring of 1850, Thoreau 
chanced upon an abandoned, still-functioning 
toy water wheel that a child must have fash- 
ioned while playing in a Walden meadow. 
This discovery inspired several rich journal 
pages, never re-used in any published work 
(3:50-53, April 1850). 

Using Thoreau's charming field'observa- 
tions as a starting point for her key essay, 
Laura Dassow Walls, an authority on 
Thoreau's science writing, elucidates the 
creative dynamic by which Thoreau tran- 
scended the limiting personae typically 
available to the midcentury science writer. 
Thoreau instead forged what Walls calls a 
"technology of inscription" enabling him to 
"braid together the physical facts of the 
natural world and the truths of trans- 
cendental 'higher law."' 

Walls mined this field in Seeing New 
Worlds (1995) and in her subsequent insight- 
ful studies of Thoreau the scientist; now she 
reaches a new level of synthesis, using a style 
as clear and fluid as the coursing melrwater 
that powers the model engine in Thoreau's 
meadow. Her essay is encyclopedic enough 
in its 20-plus pages to encompass a welter of 
objects and ideas — the water wheel, the 
notions of inscription and eduction, the 
Young-Ludwig kymograph, the dawn of 
technology (whether industrial, literary or 
symbolic), and the literary articulation of 
nature required to produce Thoreau's "facts 
flowering into truths." 

With bold dexterity, Walls braids these 
seeming disparities together into a luminous 
vision of transcendental science that is at 
once rugged and delicate, and as "far- 
sounding" as the tinkling water wheel that 
inspires it. Well beyond the history of science 
writing in the nineteenth century, Walls 
believes that "seeing new worlds" is a 
present-day imperative: we can, and today 










we must, discover uses of 
Thoreau that will guide our 
paths through a cosmos 
increasingly driven by 
"modern" science. 

Lawrence Rosenwald's 
chapter on "Civil Disobedience" 
is of comparable scope. A war 
tax resister as well as a scholar, 
Rosenwald examines "the 
complex relation between text 
and action" and clarifies the 
paradoxes in, and behind, 
Thoreau's famous essay. 
Many readers of "Civil 
Disobedience" are aware that Thoreau's 
complex philosophy of conscientious objec- 
tion — put to the test by increasingly violent 
struggles against slavery in Massachusetts 
and nationwide — progressed beyond nonvi- 
olent protest in the 1850s, eventually "siding 
with the light" as Frederick Douglass and 
masses of abolitionists had already done in 
breaking away from W. L. Garrison's pacifist 
movement. 

Few, however, probably realize the extent 
to which "Civil Disobedience" itself was 
forged amid the growing pressures of the 
preceding decade. Rosenwald traces an 
important evolution between 1840 — 
Thoreau's first tax refusal — and 1849, the 
first publication of his essay under the signif- 
icant title "Resistance to Civil Government." 
Rosenwald establishes that the individual 
act of tax refusal that won Thoreau his night 
in jail is actually a blending, for dramatic 
purposes, of two distinct protests by the 
young Thoreau — his "signing off' from the 
First Parish Church tax rolls in 1840 and his 
more significant refusal of the poll tax begin- 
ning in 1842. We then learn that Thoreau's 
history-making poll tax refusal is based on "a 
fiction": 

His account of his tax resistance in 
the essay revises his tax resistance in 
the world, in the community of 
Concord. In the essay, Thoreau cites 
the Mexican War as a reason for 
refusing to pay the poll tax. In the 
world, Thoreau's action predated the 
war by four years. In the essay, 
Thoreau refuses the tax because, as he 
writes, 'I cannot for an instant recog- 
nize that political organization as my 
government which is the slave's 
government also.'ln the world, he 
apparently began refusing taxes out of 
an unwillingness to recognize any 
political organization whatever. 

Compounding the paradox is 



Thoreau's disingenuous presentation 
of the poll tax itself. As Rosenwald 
demonstrates, it was never a federal 
tax (the Mexican War was financed 
with other monies), and even during 
the one year when it was reckoned as 
a state tax (1845), Massachusetts law 
forbade using such revenue to pay for 
fugitive slave-catching. "Most of the 
time, then, Thoreau was refusing to 
pay tax to Middlesex County and the 
town of Concord, neither of which 
could plausibly be called the slave's 
government." 

The ultimate paradox of "Civil 
Disobedience" is that although 
Thoreau misrepresented many partic- 
ulars, he was "broadly and propheti- 
cally right" in the guiding vision he 
articulated. Rosenwald argues that it 
is Thoreau's unlikely synthesis of 
pacifism and support for political 
revolution — rather than a global 
rejection of government or violence 
— that inspired, famously, the partic- 
ular successes of both Gandhi's first 
civil-rights campaign in South Africa 
and King's leadership of the 
Montgomery bus boycott. 

It is "almost an accident," Rosenwald 
concludes, "that the essay depicts a nonviolent 
action," Thoreau's tax refusal of the 1840s. 
"Nonviolence is not a first principle for him; it 
is at most a practical preference." Since 
Thoreau, unlike philosophers of nonresis- 
tance, does not associate his- action with a posi- 
tion on violence, he was able without contra- 
diction to defend violent actions "on the same 
grounds as.. .nonviolent action," during the 
escalating struggles over the Fugitive Slave Law 
and the public opinion wars over John 
Brown's raid on Harpers Ferry. 

Dana Nelson, Cecelia Tichi, and Robert 
Gross respectively contribute innovative 
studies of the historical specificities of 
Thoreau's images of men, manhood, jind 
race; a reading of Walden in the light of 
"decades-long feminist and material culture 
scholarship" in the field of nineteenth- 
century domesticity; and the stereotyping of 
the "hermit of Concord" during Thoreau's 
own lifetime, viewed as the effect of 
increased local social tension and stratifica- 
tion. Editor William Cain supplies a concise 
biographical introduction and an illustrated, 
well-assembled chronology. 



15 



Thoreau Society Regular and Ad Hoc Committees: 200 1 -2002 



/. Regular Committees: 

Annual Gathering Committee: (for charge, see 
By-Laws of the Thoreau Society, article X, section 
10.1, [c]):T. Beams (Society Membership Services 
Coordinator); H. Deese; D. Ganoe, Chair (dbga- 
noe@dmv.com); S. Petrulionis; T. Potter 

Committee on Nominations and Elections : (for 
charge and membership, see By-Laws of the 
Thoreau Society, article IV): S. Delano*; W. Mott; 
D. Schwie*; L. Walls, Chair 
(WallsL@Lafayette.edu); C. Wilkins* (asterisk 
indicates member elected by the Society member- 
ship-at-large) 

Executive Committee: (for charge and member- 
ship, see By-Laws of the Thoreau Society, article 
V, section 5.6): R. Galvin; R. Hoag, Chair ( 

(hoagr@mail.ecu.edu); T. Potter 

Finance Committee: (for expanded charge, see 
below; additionally, in 2001-2002 and thereafter as 
specified in the charge below, the Finance 
Corfimittee will also assume the responsibilities of 
the regular Membership and Development 
Committee [for charge, see By-Laws of the 
Thoreau Society, article X, section 10.1, (c)]): R. 
Galvin, Chair (rgalvin@davismalm.com); ). Mack; 
J. Wheeler 

Friends of Walden Pond Committee: (for charge, 
see By-Laws of the Thoreau Society, article X, sec- 
tion 10.1, [c]):R. Bosco, Chair 
(bosco@cas.albany.edu); J. Mack; J. Wheeler; A. 
Winter (member from the community); T. Harris 
(ex officio); D. Morrissey (ex officio) 

Publications Committee: (for charge, see By-Laws 
of the Thoreau Society, article X, section 10.1, 
[c]): S. Carlisle (Editor, Thoreau Society Bulletin); 
T. Harris; R. Hoag (advisor to the Committee); 
W. Mott, Chair (Wmott@wpi.edu); R. Schneider 
(Editor, The Concord Saunterer) 

Standing Committee: (for charge, see By-Laws of 
the Thoreau Society, article X, section 10.1, [c]; 
additionally, for 2001-2002, the Standing 
Committee will also assume the responsibilities of 
the Collections Committee [for charge, see By- 
Laws of the Thoreau Society, article X, section 
10.1, (c)[ ): R. Bosco; R. Hoag; J.-Myerson, Chair 
(myersonj@gwm.sc.edu); B. Powell (advisor to 
the Committee); E. Witherell (advisor to the 
Committee) 

//. Ad Hoc Committees (with charges as specified 
below): 

Awards Committee: S. Carlisle; R. Hudspeth; J. 
Myerson, Chair (myersonj@gwm.sc.edu); E. 
Witherell (advisor to the Committee) 

By-Laws Committee: R. Husdpeth, Chair (hud- 
speth@uor.edu); R. Schneider 

Education and Research Committee: K. Anderson 
(ex officio); R. Bosco (ex officio); B. Dean; J. 



Cramer; J. Gordon and R. Hudspeth, Co-Chairs 
(Jayne.Gordon@Walden.org; 
hudspeth@uor.edu); T. Harris (ex officio); L. 
Walls; L. P. Wilson. Note: Members of this 
Committee designated "ex officio" shall not be 
voting members of the Committee. 

Thoreau Birthplace Advisory Committee: R. 
Bosco; T. Harris; R. Hoag, Chair 
(hoagr@mail.ecu.edu); J. Mack (advisor to the 
Committee); f. Wheeler (advisor to the 
Committee) 

Walden in 2004: A Sesquicentennial 
Celebration — Steering Committee: R. Bosco and 
J. Myerson, Co-Chairs (bosco@cas.albany.edu; 
myersonj@gwm.sc.edu); D. Ganoe (Chair, Annual 
Gathering Committee); I. Gordon; T. Harris (staff 
support); W. Mott; R. Schneider (Editor, The 
Concord Saunterer) 

III. Charges to Committees 

Awards Committee: (The charge that follows is 
the recommendation of the ad hoc Awards 
Advisory Committee constituted last year.) 

The committee recommends that both the 
Thoreau Society Distinguished Achievement 
Award and the Thoreau Society Walter Harding 
Distinguished Service Award be made for ( 1 ) 
accomplishments in the areas included in the 
Thoreau Society's mission statement: to honor 
Henry David Thoreau by stimulating interest in 
and fostering education about his life, works, and 
philosophy and his place in his world and ours, by 
coordinating research on his life and writings, by 
acting as a repository for Thoreauviana and mate- 
rial relevant to Henry David Thoreau, and by 
advocating for the preservation of Thoreau 
Country, or (2) contributions that serve the 
Thoreau Society itself. 

The committee further recommends that the 
Thoreau Society Distinguished Achievement 
Award be made for a accomplishment that is 
limited in time and scope, and that the Thoreau 
Society Walter Harding Distinguished Service 
Award be made for a contribution that has taken 
place over some time. Few will achieve Walter's 
record of service to Thoreau and the Society, but 
his contribution should be seen as an ideal when 
considering nominees for the award. 

The committee recommends that the Thoreau 
Society Medal be awarded to an individual or 
organization exemplifying the ideals and values 
represented by Henry Thoreau. The Thoreauvian 
contribution of the recipient should be significant 
and sustained. 

We suggest one ad hoc committee of three, 
appointed by the President, to solicit from Society 
members nominations of individuals or groups 
for all three awards. The committee should also 
have the power to nominate candidates. Every 
nomination should be accompanied by a state- 
ment from the nominator explaining how the 
candidate meets the criteria for the award. The 
committee will make its recommendation to the 
board which will make the final decisions. 

We leave it to the President to decide the 



length of the term that members should serve, but 
we recommend that every time the committee 
changes, one member from the former committee 
be carried forward. 

Nominations should be solicited for each 
award every year, but the Society should not be 
obligated to make any award in a given year. 

The Thoreau Society Distinguished 
Achievement Award and the Thoreau Society 
Walter Harding Distinguished Service Award 
should consist of a plaque and a certificate that 
describe the awardee's contribution. The Thoreau 
Society Medal consists of the medal itself and a 
citation that describes the awardee's contribution. 

As part of the planning for the Annual 
Gathering, the Executive Director and the Annual 
Gathering Committee should designate a suitable 
time for making these awards. 

By-Laws Committee: By December 1, 2001, this 
Committee will by will draft and circulate to the 
Board an amendment to the By-Laws that will 
provide that any amendment proposed and signed 
by 5% of the individual (not institutional) voting 
members of the Society will automatically become 
the subject of a ballot circulated to the member- 
ship-at-large during the Society's cycle of balloting 
that traditionally occurs each Spring. The Board 
will discuss the Committee's draft of this amend- 
ment at its January 2002 meeting, and in its final 
form the amendment it will be the subject of a 
ballot before the membership next Spring. 

Education and Research Committee: For 

2001-2002, this Committee has been created and 
its members jointly appointed by the President of 
the Thoreau Society and the Executive Director of 
the Walden Woods Project; its membership has 
been approved by the Thoreau Society Board of 
Directors. 

The overall charge to this Committee is ( 1 ) to 
review and discuss the position paper submitted 
to the Board by the 2000-2001 Thoreau Society 
Research Committee which preliminarily 
addressed means by which the Society could 
achieve its educational and research missions to 
the mutual advantage of both; (2) out of that 
review and discussion, to prepare a statement of 
how the educational and research missions of 
both'the Thoreau Society and the Walden Woods 
Project can be developed in such a way as to rein- 
force each other and to realize the potential for 
education and research at The Thoreau Institute 
at Walden Woods, which is a collaboration of the 
Walden Woods Project and the Thoreau Society; 
(3) to specify and illustrate to the greatest extent 
possible the respective obligations of the Thoreau 
Society and the Walden Woods Project in realiz- 
ing the potential for education and research at The 
Thoreau Institute, and to propose committee and 
other structures that will facilitate education and 
research opportunities at The Thoreau Institute at 
Walden Woods; (4) to present a draft interim 
report to the President of the Thoreau Society and 
the Executive Director of the Walden Woods 
Project no later than December 15, 2001, which, 
in turn, both the President of the Thoreau Society 
and the Executive Director of the Walden Woods 
continued on page 17 




Todd Richardson, from the University of 
South Carolina, suggests that there may be "a 
new generation of Thoreau inspired radical- 
ism." He writes: 

"My interest was piqued when I came across 
a magazine entitled The Angry Thoreaitvian 
while browsing through the shelves of my 
local newsstand. A closer look revealed that 
The Angry Thoreauvian does not regularly 
contain articles on the life and works of H.D. 
Thoreau — rather, it is a "fanzine" — a publi- 
cation by and for the American subculture. 
The editor, one Reverend Randall Tin-ear, 
began publication in the early nineties in 
Hollywood, California, and had recently 
issued its twenty-eighth number with a print 
run of three thousand copies. 

The Angry Thoreauvian has a marked 
political orientation towards the radical left, 
and its hard-hitting (and sometimes disturb- 
ing) articles cover areas of interest to a. 
counter-culture readership of the twenty- 
first century: political essays leveling accusa- 
tions of police brutality and religious 
hypocrisy, the present state of feminism in 
the underground, problems with media bias, 
happenings in the punk music scene, among 
others. One letter to the editor reads, in part, 
"Your publication is full of vile epithets 
[and] rude observations... with little regard 
to the feelings of others. I so admire that in a 
magazine!" 

Michael Meyer in his Several More Lives to 
Live notes that Thoreau "had at one time or 
another said no to all the right things; his 
everlasting nay affirmed his significance and 
relevance for many Americans in the 1960s." 
But the publication of The Angry 
Thoreauvian indicates that the affinity which 
American counter-culture has for the politi- 
cal ideology of Henry David Thoreau did not 
end with the sixties — it is alive, and could 
well thrive again." 

Randall Conrad notes the following: "I came 
into this world, not chiefly to make this a 
good place to live in, but to live in it, be it 
good or bad." Bob Gaskins, a creator of the 
Microsoft PowerPoint slide presentation 
program, used to quote Thoreau's line from 
"Civil Disobedience" to inspire his col- 
leagues, according to Ian Parker in The New 
Yorker, 28 May 2001 (p. 80). 

Larry Smith, poet and professor of English at 
B( iSl ' 1 irelands ( College lias been perform- 
ing poems from his new Thoreau's Lost 
journal: Poems by Larry Smith ( Westron 
Press, P.O. Box 5285, Toledo, Ohio 4361 1, 
SIO ppd). Smith also includes recitations 
Irom Thoreau's Waldenand "Civil 



Disobedience" in his performances at 
libraries, colleges, museums and even coffee- 
houses in Ohio. The book may also be 
ordered from the Shop at Walden Pond. 

Brian Bartlett writes that in the recent novel '. 
Mercy Among the Children by Canadian 
novelist David Adams Richards (Doubleday 
Canada, 2000, forthcoming in the U.S. and 
England this fall), the poor, Job-like autodi- 
dact hero has read Thoreau. In what might 
be taken as a snub of Thoreau, the narrator 
says of Sydney Henderson: "he did not know 
that he, and not Thoreau, was the real article, 
or that his civil disobedience went to the very 
soul of man" (p. 41). 

"Oh Thoreau!" — a concert featuring read- 
ings from works"by Thoreau and John Cage, 
and other relevant repetoire including works 
by Gottschalk, Cage, Ives, and Pleyel, was 
presented on Sunday, May 13 th in the Russell 
House of Wesleyan University in 
Middletown, Connecticut. 

Randall Conrad of Lexington writes that 
readers who appreciated J. O. Valentine's 
lively sketch of Tasha Tudor and her family 
may be interested to know that Walden is not 
the only work in which Frederic Tudor 
(1783-1864), the "Ice King" entrepreneur 
who shipped Walden's water to tropical 
markets, appears. He also gets a mention in 
The Maine Woods, targeted this time for 
altering the environment in Nahant, north 
of Boston. Thoreau is referring to the 
"Rockwood" estate, today the site of the 
Nahant, Massachusetts, Country Club. In 
1812 these lands, totalling some 75 acres, 
were deeded to the young Frederic Tudor by 
his merchant father. Frederic improved 
Rockwood with farmlands and a "rustic • 
stone" summer cottage built in 1825. 

We seem to think that the earth 
must go through the ordeal of sheep- 
pasturage before it is habitable by man. 
Consider Nahant, the resort of all the 
fashion of Boston, — which peninsula I 
saw but indistinctly in the twilight, 
when I steamed by it, and thought that 
it was unchanged since the discovery. 
John Smith described it in 1614 as "the 
Mattahunts, two pleasant isles o\ 
groves, gardens, and cornfields"; and 
others tell us that it was once well 
wooded, and even furnished timber to 
build the wharves of Boston. Now it is 
difficult to make a tree grow there, and 
the visitor comes away with a vision oj 
Mr. Tudor's ugly fences, a rod high, 
designed to protect a few pear-shrubs. 



(Thoreau, The Maine Woods, ed. . 
Joseph J. Moldenhauer, Princeton NJ: 
Princeton UP, 1972, 154.) 

Thoreau's description forms an ironic con- 
trast with the cheery summary of Frederic 
Tudor's improvements in a Historical Note 
that prefaces the Tudor family records 
archived at Harvard: "Continuing the fami- 
ly's practice of improving their property, 
Frederic invested large sums of money in 
plants, trees and flowers and 
converted a barren hill into a showplace." 
(Tudor Family "Rockwood" Records, 1799- 
1863. Historical Collections, Baker Library, 
Harvard Business School. 
(www.library.hbs.edu/hc/sfa/tudorrockwood) 
An 1849 "Letter on the Ice Trade" written 
by Tudor that Bradley Dean has made avail- 
able at www.walden.org/contemporaries/t/ 
Tudor_Frederic/ illuminates the market- 
creating techniques that made the Ice King's 
fortune. 

Robert L. Harris reports that permanently set 
in the floor of the Pheasant Lane Mall 
(Nashua, NH) is the following: "There is'no 
season such delight can bring, as summer, 
autumn, winter and the spring. Henry David 
Thoreau" 

Thoreau makes yet another appearance on 
network television; On a spring episode of 
"Ed," four of the characters, high-school 
kids, sit in a small circle talking about 
Walden, their teacher at her desk in the back- 
ground. One of the kids, in an effort to come 
on to a girl, memorized the "lives of quiet 
desperation" passage, which seems to have 
prompted him to read the book — or at least 
the first three chapters. He actually evinces 
some enthusiasm for the book and concludes 
that Walden is "one big wake-up call." Later 
he reads the "live deliberately" passage to 
two of his teachers and asks them, "Wow, 
was this guy cool or what?" His English 
teacher responds, "Yes, Henry David 
Thoreau is a cool guy." 

The following appeared in the 18 June 1878 
edition of the Portland, Maine Sunday 
Times: 

"The following advertisement was 
in a Boston daily journal last week: A 
lady in N.H., of Emersonian thought 
and sentiment, offers conditions for 
refreshment, spiritual and physical, to 
parties of two persons for one week or 
fortnight after July 1. River and 
mountain scenery; choice library in 
town. Two meals and private table; 
table and household appointments in 



/ 

17 



emulation of Cornaro and Thoreau. 
Separate rooms if desired. French and 
German spoken. $14 the week for two 
persons. Address Mrs. - ." 

Daniel Botkin presented a lecture at Amherst 
College, Amherst, Massachusetts on 28 
March 2001 entitled "What Thoreau Would 
Say to George W. Bush: Solving 
Environment Problems in the 21st Century." 
With frequent references to his book No 
Man's Garden: Thoreau and a New Vision for 
Civilization and Nature, Botkin claimed that 
the first thing Thoreau would tell Bush is 
"learn directly from detailed experiences... 
You have to think about nature and civiliza- 
tion mixed together as one system." 

Michael Berger sends an Alumni Program 
brochure from St. John's College in Santa Fe, 
New Mexico that includes the following , 
Thoreau quote: "What everyone echoes . . . 
as true today, may turn out to be falsehood 



tomorrow, mere smoke of opinion." 

In the April 19-25 issue of Maine Times, 
contributing editor John Cole writes "A Few 
Choice Words" entitled Thoreau and the 
Land. Cole "offers a collection of well- 
chosen words from the Concord boy who 
did so much to inform how we think about 
the world around us. The prescience of 
Thoreau's 105-year-old thoughts continues 
to amaze and provoke." 

In the 1 1 March 2001 issue of the Chicago 
Tribune, Barry Kritzberg alerts us to an 
article invoking Thoreau's method of "tax 
evasion" titled "Thou Protesteth? Just Saying 
No to the Tax Man." 

Teacher Monica Hiller, a participant in the 
Summer 2000 Teacher's Workshop offered 
at the Thoreau Institute, was featured in a 24 
May 2001 article in the BostoifGlobe. Using 
an interdisciplinary and multi-media 
approach, Hiller coaxes her students "to 
open their eyes a little wider and to look 



more deeply inward." 

An article in the 3 June 2001 issue of The 
New York Times details Reverend Al 
Sharpton's approach to civil disobedience. 
Using Thoreau's essay as a guide, Sharpton is 
willing indeed to serve his jail time as part of 
his non-violent protest in New York's theater 
district. 

It is with deep regret that the Thoreau 
Society notes the passing of Robert Lucas. 
Bob was the proprietor of Robert F. Lucas 
Antiquarian Books. He specializedin books 
by and about Thoreau and was a member of 
The Thoreau Society. He was very generous 
in sharing his great knowledge of 
Thoreauviana. Bob conducted his business 
with the utmost integrity, and was a good 
friend to many of us. We will miss him. 



Committees, from page 15 

Project will discuss with their respective Boards in 
meetings during January 2002; (5) acknowledging 
comments and recommendations emerging from 
discussions that occur in January 2002, to present 
a final report to the President of the Thoreau 
Society and the Executive Director of the Walden 
Woods Project for discussion by their respective 
Boards and implementation no later than July 
2002. 

In the context of this detailed charge, but as a 
consideration separate from it, no later than 
December 1 5, 200 1 , the Committee will also ( 1 ) 
devise application forms for_the Thoreau Society 
Fellowships program, which was approved by the 
Board of Directors in January 2001 for implemen- 
tation in 2002; (2) develop and prepare formal 
guidelines for the advertising, judging, and award- 
ing of these fellowships; (3) create an appropriate 
organizational structure to oversee the Thoreau 
Society Fellowships program; and (4) present a 
detailed report on these matters to the President 
of the Thoreau Society for review by the Thoreau 
Society Board of Directors in January 2002. 

Note: Members of this Committee designated 
"ex officio" shall not be voting members of the 
Committee. Additionally, the charge to the 
Committee shall not be construed to limit the 
range of topics or the nature thereof that the 
Committee may entertain during its deliberations. 
In effect, under the terms of its' charge, the 
Committee has the authority to discuss and make 
recommendations about matters relating to edu- 
cation and research at The Thoreau Institute at 
Walden Woods that the Committee deems appro- 
priate for discussion and as appropriate as subjects 
on which to make specific recommendations. 
Finally, the time frame for the work of this 
Committee as indicated is a suggested maximum 
time frame only; ideally, the work of the 
Committee will be brought to closure as expedi- 
tiously as possible so that its recommendations 



can be implemented prior to July 2002. 

Finance Committee: For 2001-2002, and until 
such time as the charge that follows is explicitly 
altered or set aside by the Board of Directors, the 
charge to this Committee is: ( 1 ) to meet with the 
Society's Executive Director and Business 
Manager six times per year, exclusive of Board 
meetings; (2) to maintain a running review of all 
aspects of the finances of the Society and the 
finances of activities of the Society such as The 
Friends of Walden Pond (the latter in consulta- 
tion-with The Friends of Walden Pond 
Committee); minimally, this running review shall 
take into account the Society's cash reserves, 
income and expenses relating to the Shop, all. 
operational expenses in addition to those associat- 
ed with the Shop (including personnel expenses), 
investments, and any other matters relating to the 
Society's finances that the Committee deems 
appropriate for review; and (3) to regularly advise 
the President (and through the President the 
Board of Directors) and the Executive Director of 
the financial condition of the Society, to recom- 
mend to them any and all reasonable means to 
achieve economies in the operational expenses of 
the Society at all levels, and to recommend mea- 
sures to improve returns on the Society's invest- 
ments (e.g., the Bodfish Bequest, the Smith Fund, 
and the like). 

Thoreau Birthplace Advisory Committee: This 
Committee will advise the Board on roles the 
Society may wish to take on as the future of the 
Thoreau birthplace unfolds over the next several 
months. 

Walden in 2004: A Sesquicentennial 
Celebration — Steering Committee: This 
Committee will advise the Board of Directors on 
.activities sponsored and fully or partially funded 
by the Society with respect to this celebration. The 



only events sponsored and funded fully or partial- 
ly by the Society in 2004 will be ( 1 ) an expanded 
Annual Gathering, (2) a series of public events 
developed in connection with the Society's posi- 
tion as The Friends of Walden Pond, and (3) pos- 
sibly an expanded "special" issue of The Concord 
Saunterer devoted to Walden the book and 
Walden the place. With the concurrence of the 
Board, the Committee will represent the Society's 
interests in discussions with local, national, and 
international organizers of other events marking 
the 150 th year since the publication of Walden. 



Annual Gathering July I 1-14, 2002 

The Spiritual and Political 

Mind of Thoreau 

with keynote sp'eaker Lewis Hyde 

Please send us your ideas and 

suggestions for speakers, programs, 

and activities for next year's Gathering. 

Send your suggestions along with a 

half-page description to: 

The Thoreau Society 
Annual Gathering Committee - 
44 Baker Farm » 
Lincoln, MA 01773-3004 
ThoreauSociety@walden.org 

All suggestions must be received by 
21 December 200 1 



18 



Additions to the 
Thoreau Bibliography 



Cain, William E., ed. .4 Historical guide to 
Hcnrv David Thoreau. New York: Oxford 
UP, 2000. 

Carfaro, Philip. "Thoreau, Leopold, and 
("arson: Toward an Environment \ 'irtue 
Ethics." Environment Ethics 23, no. 1 
(spring 2001): 3 -17. 

Foster, David R. Thoreau's Country: Journey 
Through a Transformed Landscape. 
Cambridge: Harvard UP, 1998. Review: 
Journal of American Studies 34, no. 3 
(December 2000): 520-521. Reviewed by 
R.W. (Herbie) Butterfield. 

McGregor, Robert Kuhn. .4 Wider View of 
the Universe: Henry Thoreau's Study of 
Nature. Urbana: U of Illinois Press, 1997. 
Review: Journal of Historical Geography 
27, no. 1 (January 2001): 116-118. 
Reviewed by (Steven M. Schnell. 

McSweeney, Kerry. The Language of the 
Senses: Sensory-Perceptual Dynamics in 
Wordsworth, Coleridge, Thoreau, 
Whitman, and Dickinson. Liverpool: 
Liverpool UP, 1999. Review: The Review 
of English Studies 52, no. 205 (2001 ): 125- 
126. Reviewed by Michael O'Neill. 



Susie Carlisle & 




Olson, Kelli. "A Cultural Study of Henry D. 
Thoreau's The Maine Woods." Diss. 
Georgia State U, 2000. 

Samuels, Bayle Brandow. Enduring Roots: 
Encounters with Trees, History, and the 
American Landscape. Review: The Journal 
of American History 88, no. 1 (June 2001). 
Reviewed by Brian Donahue, who notes 
Samuels' exploration of an "ideal middle 
ground between wildness and cultivation" 
as "she walks with Henry Thoreau after 
wild apples, seeing him not as a sentimen- 
tal pastoralist but as a fellow seeker for 
integration between the garden and the 
wild." 

Sewell, George T. To Katahdin: The 1876 
Adventures of Four Young Men and a Boat. 
Gardiner ME: Tilbury House, 2000. 
Paperback, 107pp, S20, introduction by 
Neil Rolde, and afterword by Irvin C. 
"Buzz" Caverly, Jr., Director of Baxter 
State Park. Sewell was one of Thoreau's 
pupils and Ellen Sewell's younger brother. 

Tauber, Alfred I. Henry David Thoreau and 
the Moral Agency of Knowing. Berkeley: l T 
of California Press, 2001. 



Thoreau, Henry David. Cape Cod. Review: 
Yarmouth Register, volume XXIX, No. 16, 
24 March 1865, page 2, column 2. 
Earliest newspaper review of Cape Cod yet 
located. 

. Collected Essays and Poems. Edited by 

Elizabeth Hall Witherall. New York: 
Library of America, 2001. Review: Boston 
Globe, 26 May 2001. Reviewed by Claude 
Crowley. 
-. Journal, Volume 6: 1853. Edited by 



William Rossi and Heather Kirk Thomas. 
The Writings of Henry D. Thoreau. 
Princeton: Princeton UP, 2000. Review: 
The Virginia Quarterly Review 77, no. 2 
(spring 2001): 54-55. 

We are grateful for the contributions made to the 
bibliography by M. Berger, M. Harding, B. Dean, 
and R. WinslowLTI. Please continue to keep Susie 
Carlisle informed of any items missed and new 
items as they appear at, 44 Baker Farm, Lincoln, 
Massachusetts 01773-3004; e-mail 
scarlisl@ziplink.net; fax (978) 827-3162. Whenever 
possible, include a copy of the book, article, or other 
item so that it can be presen>ed in the Thoreau 
Society's collection at the Thoreau Institute. 



Japan Visit, from page 9 
Toda, who had been imprisoned with 
Makiguchi for his own anti-militaristic 
beliefs during World War II. Following the 
end of the war, Toda rebuilt Soka Gakkai 
and increased its membership to over 
750,000; Toda's work prepared the way for 
Dr. Ikeda, who succeeded him as president 
in 1960. 

Soka Gakkai's expansion has occurred 
largely under the leadership of Dr. Ikeda, 
who has increased the organization's size and 
scope, so that today there are thirteen mil- 
lion members in one hundred and forty- 
eight countries. Their mission to promote 
peace, culture, and education has remained 
tlie same while their activities toward achiev- 
ing that mission have expanded greatly. The 
similarities between Thoreau and Ikeda are 
evident in the individualistic nature of 
reform that both champion and to which 
Ikeda has repeatedly drawn attention as a 
core concept informing Soka Gakkai's mis- 
sion: 

A great revolution of character in 
lust a single individual will help 
achieve a change in the destiny of a 
society, and further, will enable a 
change in the destiny of humankind. 
— Daisaku Ikeda, 

The Human Revolution 



An accomplished educator, author, and 
poet, Dr. Ikeda has advocated for world 
peace through education and international 
cultural exchange throughout his career. In 
one of his many influential publications, 
Choose Life ( 1974) in which he collaborated 
with Sir Arnold J. Toynbee, he proposed that 
the diverse problems confronting the world's 
populations should always be overcome 
through peaceful solutions — a position he 
maintains to this day as evidenced by his 
recently published Creating and Sustaining a 
Century of Life (2001 ). For his lifelong sup- 
port of world peace, Dr. Ikeda has been 
acknowledged by more than one hundred 
colleges and universities around the world 
which have awarded him honorary doctor- 
ates and professorships. Among numerous 
other honors, Dr. Ikeda has also received the 
United Nations Peace Medal, the Wiesenthal 
Center's Simon Wiesenthal International 
Tolerance Award, the Rosa Parks 
Humanitarian Award, and the Tagore Peace 
Award. 

following the presentation of the 
I lonorary Life Membership in the Thoreau 
Society to Dr. Ikeda and his address, the plat- 
form party ol some several hundred persons 
moved to a ceremony in the adjoining gym- 
nasium. There, Dr. Masami Wakae, 
President ol Soka University, recognized the 



scholarly and professional achievements of 
Bosco and Myerson by awarding each of 
them the Soka University academic Award of 
Highest Honor; for his contribution to the 
promotion of Thoreau'* legacy as the 
Society's Executive Director, Harris was pre- 
sented with the Soka University Award of 
Honor. At the invitation of Dr. Ikeda, that 
evening, in a ceremony in the Makiguchi 
Memorial Garden on the campus, Bosco, 
Myerson, and Harris dedicated a mature 
cherry tree in remembrance of Henry David 
Thoreau; in his brief remarks, Bosco 
acknowledged the gesture as a generous and 
fitting tribute to the shared ideals for which 
Thoreau and Makiguchi lived. 

At the request of the Society's president, a 
former secondary school teacher, Bosco and 
his companions visited the Soka Schools on 
their last day in Japan. Located in Kodaira, a 
suburb of Tokyo noted for its natural beauty, 
the Soka Schools include junior and senior 
high schools founded by Dr. Ikeda in 1968 
and an elementary school founded by him in 
1978. Mr. Michio Kobayashi, Chairman of 
the Soka Schools, hosted the visit during 
which students from the K- 12 system greeted 
their guests with a tour, musical perfor- 
mances, and a formal tea ceremony. After 
lunch and discussions with teachers and 

continued on page 19 



President's Column, from page 5 

been raised about our By-Laws is a question 
over the mechanism by which they may be 
amended. According to the results of my 
research into the Society's By-Laws going 
back to 1948 (which is the earliest dated 
version of our By-Laws that I have,found), 
our By-Laws have always explicitly stated 
that the right to in any way amend the By- 
Laws rests entirely with the membership. 
Unfortunately, neither in 1948, nor today, 
nor at any time in between, has our By-Laws 
provided aji actual mechanism for the 
membership doing so. 

Acting on motions that were introduced 
during its meetings this week, the Board 
proposes the following: 

First, any member of the Society may 
propose to any officer or member of the 
Board of Directors an amendment to, or they 
may pose a question, concern — whatever — 
about, the By-Laws. I personally promise the 
Board will respectfully receive and discuss 
anything relating to the By-Laws that comes 
before it, and that anyone who approaches 
the Board on a subject relating to the By- 
Laws will receive an answer — without any- 
one having to go through the mediation of a 
committee. This is my answer to guarantee- 
ing the rights and democratic processes of 
the Society to all its members, and the Board 
of Directors has unanimously accepted their 
responsibility to see that the process I have 
just described is honored. 

Second, by December 1, 2001, the ad hoc 
By-Laws Committee will draft and circulate 
I to the Board an amendment to the By-Laws 
that will formalize the process I describe 
above, and will also provide that any amend- 
ment proposed and signed by 5% or the 
individual (not institutional) voting mem- 
bers of the Society will automatically become 
the subject of a ballot circulated to the mem- 
bership-at-large during the Society's cycle of 
. balloting that traditionally occurs each 
Spring. The Board will discuss the 
Committee's draft of this amendment at its 
January 2002 meeting, and I have every 
reason to believe that it will be the subject of 
a ballot before the membership next Spring. 

I have also appointed an ad hoc commit- 
tee under the leadership of the Society's 
Treasurer Ronald Hoag that will advise the 
Board on roles the Society may wish to take 
on as the future of the Thoreau birthplace 
unfolds over the next several months. As we 
all know, many of our members including 
Ron, Kathi Anderson, Helen Bowdoin, John 
Mack, Joseph Wheeler, and others, along 
with many individuals from local communi- 
ties, have devoted an enormous amount of 
time and energy into seeing that the poten- 
tial represented by the birthplace can be real- 
ized. Their efforts have now come to an 



impasse, and it is in the context of this 
impasse that I have charged the ad hoc 
Thoreau Birthplace Committee to conduct 
its investigations and, by December 15, 2001, 
advise the Board of Directors in the broadest 
terms possible on the Society's role regarding 
the future of the birthplace. 

I began this address by pointing to the 
remarkable diversity of talent that the mem- 
bership of our Society represents and that 
has sustained and enabled us to grow as a 
Society for the past sixty years. To celebrate 
our membership and the contributions they 
have made to the advancement of the 
mission of the Thoreau Society, last year I 
charged an ad hoc Committee of the Board 
to formalize descriptions of, and develop 
guidelines for nominating and choosing 
recipients for, three Society awards that have 
not been presented in some time: the 
Thoreau Society Distinguished Achievement 
Award, the Thoreau Society Walter Harding 
Distinguished Service Award, and the 
Thoreau Society Medal. Each of these awards 
recognizes individuals or institutions for sig- 
nificant and sustained contributions to the 
Society's mission, with the achievement 
award typically recognizing scholarship or 
public service, the service award recognizing 
accomplishments that are limited in time 
and scope, but are nevertheless essential to 
furthering the Society's mission, and the 
medal recognizing achievements that exem- 
plify the ideals and values represented by 
Henry Thoreau. 

After receiving and accepting the commit- 
tee's recommendations in January of this year, 
the Board constituted this committee as an ad 
hoc Awards Committee. A call for nomina- 
tions for these awards went out in our 
Winter/Spring 2001 Bulletin, and our mem- 
bership responded with great enthusiasm. 

I am so very pleased to announce that 
Robert D. Richardson, Jr. has been named to 
receive the Thoreau Society Distinguished 
Achievement Award and Professor E. O. 
Wilson has been named to receive the 
Thoreau Society Medal; these awards will be 
presented at a later date, with announce- 
ments posted in a forthcoming Bulletin. 

I am also very pleased to announce that 
three persons have been named to receive the 
Thoreau Society Walter Harding 
Distinguished Service Award, and that it is 
my distinct honor today to present these per- 
sons with their awards and to extend my 
hand to each of them in gratitude for their 
respective commitments of time and consid- 
erable talent to the Thoreau Society. May I 
ask Robert J. Galvin, John D. Mack, and 
Lorna C. Mack to rise, and may I ask all of 
you in the audience to join me in congratu- 
lating these three truly generous and com- 
mitted citizens of our Society. 



19 



In closing, and before I move down to 
the floor to present Bob, John, and Lorna 
with their awards, I wish to personally thank 
the officers, the Board of Directors, and the 
membership-at-large of the Thoreau Society 
for making the past year a highly gratifying 
experience for me in my role as president 
and for advancing the mission of the Society 
in the thoroughly spectacular ways I have 
described to you today. I end by quoting yet 
once again the passage from Thoreau that 
has inspired me for much of my life, and that 
certainly has inspired my service on behalf of 
the Society this past year. Touched by the 
vivifying warmth of an early spring day in 
1853, Thoreau wrote in his Journal, "[T]he 
future is worth expecting. Encouraged, I set 
out once more to climb the mountain of the 
earth, for my steps are symbolical steps, and 
in all my walking I have not reached the top 
of the earth yet." 



r 






* 



Japan Visit, from page 18 

school administrators on the challenges 
facing contemporary educators, the three 
Thoreauvians engaged in a lively question 
and answer period with the senior high 
school students, whose comments about 
self-reform and humanism revealed a strong 
grounding in the philosophies of Soka 
Gakkai's founders and many parallels with 
Thofeau and other American 
Transcendentalists. 

As Bosco stated in his address at Soka 
University, we sincerely hope that this trip 
inaugurates an important and a lasting 
friendship between the Soka University and 
Soka Gakkai communities and the Thoreau 
Society that will advance the causes we share: 
education, peace, culture, and, especially, 
respect for the "inherent wisdom" of the 
individual and for our environment. These 
are the ideals to which our founders devoted 
their lives, and these are the ideals most 
crucial to the success of the missions of our 
respective organizations. We are now 
working on ways in which Soka Gakkai and 
Thoreau Society members may join in the 
near future in lectures and other public 
events to further explore parallels between 
the missions of their organizations and to 
discuss concerns of mutual interest. 




September 

Massachusetts 
22 Saturday 



I Oa.m. 



Of Pond Lillies & Music Boxes: Thoreau and 
The Old Manse 

A Thoreau Society Excursion 

Laurie Butters, Director, The Old Manse 

Part of the Thoreau Society's excursion 
program "I have traveled a great deal in 
Concord" featuring monthly walks in and 
around Concord, Massachusetts. Space is 
limited. To reserve a spot and for informa- 
tion on where to meet contact the Thoreau 
Society at (78 1 ) 259-4750 or online at 
www.walden.org/society. 



26 Wednesday 7:30 p.m. 

"A History of Myself 

Southborough Historical Museum 

Richard Smith, as Henry Thoreau, will 
recreate Thoreau's 1847 lecture. Thoreau 
gave this talk twice, and most of it was later 
incorporated into his book Walden. The 
lecture was Thoreau's answer to all of the 
people who wanted to know why he had 
lived in a one-room house at Walden Pond 
for 2 years, 2 months and 2 days. There will 
be a question and answer period with "Mr. 
Thoreau" after the lecture. Sponsored by the 
Southborough Historical Society. 
Southborough Historical Museum is located 
at 25 Common Street, Southborough, MA. 
Free and open to the public. 

October 

Massachusetts 

3-5 Columbus Day Weekend 

Cape Cod Excursion 

Follow Thoreau's journey on Cape Cod from 
Eastham to Provincetown. Adam Gamble, 
author of In the Footsteps of Thoreau: 25 
Historic and Nature Walks on Cape Cod, will 
lead the three-day excursion. Robert Finch, 
essayist and co-editor of The Norton Book of 
Nature Writing, will join us for an evening 
discussion of nature writing and the Cape. 
Packages ($395 for members) include B&B 
lodging and meals. For more information, 
call 1 78 1 ) 259-4750 or visit our Web site at 
www.walden.org/socicty. 



13 Saturday I Oa.m. 

Thoreau and the Farmers of Concord 
A Thoreau Society Excursion 
Richard Smith 



Part of the Thoreau Society's excursion 
program "1 have traveled a great deal in 
Concord" featuring monthly walks in and 
around Concord, Massachusetts. Space is 
limited. To reserve a spot and for informa- 
tion on where to meet contact the Thoreau 
Society at (781) 259-4750 or online at 
www.walden.org/society. 

15, 22, 29, & Nov. 5 Mondays 

7:00-9:00 p.m. 

NATURE AND CULTURE; SOLITUDE 
AND SOCIETY 

Thoreau Institute, Lincoln, MA 

A four part discussion series on selected 
essays of Henry Thoreau, presented by 
The Thoreau Institute at Walden Woods 

Price of $50 includes copy of Civil 
Disobedience and Other Essays (Dover) 
$40 for Thoreau Society members 

"Civil Disobedience," "Slavery in 
Massachusetts," "A Plea for Captain John 
Brown," "Walking" and "Life Without 
Principle" are among Henry Thoreau's most 
powerful, provocative pieces of writing. In 
them, Thoreau examines the place of the 
individual in the natural world and the 
cultural community, and man's responsibility 
to both the environment and the govern- 
ment in "living deliberately"— consciously 
and conscientiously. 

The five essays will be the subjects of conver- 
sation during a four-part discussion series 
held at the Thoreau Institute at Walden 
Woods, a research and education center in 
Lincoln. Jayne Gordon, the Institute's 
Education Program Director, will facilitate 
the sessions and provide participants with 
historical context. The booklet of essays, 
with a syllabus and framing questions for 
each evening, will be mailed to all partici- 
pants in advance. 



November 

Massachusetts 
1 7 Saturday 



I Oa.m. 



Thoreau & The Walden Bean Field 
A Thoreau Society Excursion 

Bradley P. Dean, Media Center Director, The 
Thoreau Institute 

Part of the Thoreau Society's excursion 
program "1 have traveled a great deal in 
( loncord" featuring monthly walks in and 
around Concord, Massachusetts. Space is 
limited. To reserve a spot and for informa- 
tion on where to meel contact the Thoreau 
Soucty.it (781) 259-4750 or online at 
www.walden.org/society. 



© 2001 The Thoreau Society, Inc. 

The Thoreau Society Bulletin, published 
quarterly by the Thoreau Society, is indexed 
in American Humanities Index and MLA 
International Bibliography. 

Editor, Susie Carlisle 

Assistant Editor, Tom Harris 

Graphic Designer/Illustrator, Karen Merrill 

Board of Directors: 

Ronald A. Bosco, President; Susie Carlisle; 
Helen R. Deese; Robert J. Galvin, V. P. of 
Finance; David Ganoe; Ronald W. Hoag, 
Treasurer; Robert Hudspeth; John Mack; 
Wesley T. Mott, V.P. of Publications; Joel 
Myerson, Secretary; Sandra Petrulionis; Tom 
Potter; Richard Schneider; Laura Dassow Walls; 
Joseph Wheeler 

Executive Director Tom Harris 

Business Manager Karen Kashian 

Membership Coordinator Tamara Beams 

Program Coordinator Richard Smith 

Shop Manager Jon Fadiman 

Shop Staff Emily Hogan, Tim Smith 

Established in 1941, The Thoreau Soceity, Inc., 
is an international nonprofit organization with 
a mission to honor Henry David Thoreau by 
stimulating interest in and fostering education 
about his life, works, and philosophy and his 
place in his world arid ours, by coordinating 
research on his life and writings, by acting as a ~ 
repository for Thoreauviana and material 
relevant to Henry David Thoreau, and by advo- 
cating for the preservation of Thoreau Country. 
Membership in the Society includes subscrip- 
tions to its two publications, The Concord 
Saunterer (published each autumn) and The 
Thoreau Society Bulletin^ published quarterly). 
Society members receive a ten percent discount 
on all merchandise purchased from the 
Thoreau Society Shop at Walden Pond and 
advance notice about Society programs, 
including the annual gathering. Contact the 
Thoreau Society administrative offices in 
Lincoln, Massachusetts, for membership 
information (address below). 

Thoreau Society Directory 
Communications relating to The Concord 
Saunterer should be addressed to Richard 
Schneider, Department of English-and Modern 
Languages, Wartburg College, 222 Ninth Street 
NW, Waverly, I A 50677;tel: (319) 352-8435; 
e-mail: schneider@wartburg.edu. 
Inquiries about merchandise (including books 
and mail-order items) should be directed to 
Jon Fadiman, Manager, the Thoreau Society 
Shop at Walden Pond, 915 Walden Street, 
Concord, MA 01742-4511, U.S.A.; tel: (781) 
259-4770; fax: (978) 287-5620; e-mail: 
Shop@walden.org. 

All other inquiries and communications should 
be directed to the Thoreau Society, 44 Baker 
Farm, Lincoln, MA 01773-3004, U.S.A.; tel: 
(781) 259-4750; fax: (781) 259-4760; e-mail: 
ThoreauSociety@walden.org 

www.walden.org 

\§ Printed on 100% post-consumer recycled paper